Dear Dr. Murugan,

This year, Northern Europe has a very wet summer. I don’t know about the precipitation pattern in Brittany, but where I live, a little further north, in Denmark, we have had sudden thunderstorms in July with precipitation up to 150 mm over 2 hours in certain areas. Such incidents aggravate the run-off of nutrients from land, both from urban sewers and agriculture.

 

I read that there are plenty of pig-farms in Brittany that were held responsible, but now will be helped by the French government to handle their manure in a better way.

 

Let us hope that will help!

 

Regards,

Kirsten Olrik

Kirsten Olrik, biolog, Cand.scient, Ph.D.
Miljøbiologisk Laboratorium Aps
Postboks 34, Henningsens Allé 2 C
DK-2900 Hellerup
Mobil +45 28146254 

 


Fra: Dr. Annappan Murugan [mailto:[log in to unmask]]
Sendt: 25. juli 2011 14:13
Til: [log in to unmask]; Kirsten Olrik
Emne: Re: SV: 回复: Killer Ulva "lactuca"?

 

Dear Kirsten Olrik,

Considering the massive growth of algae, the nutrient input must be enormous and continuous to support this huge biomass. Where does it come from? Unless otherwise there is a massive let off from land sources, such a massive growth is not possible. Is there any other possibility of natural input?

Regards,
Dr. A. Murugan
India

--- On Mon, 25/7/11, Kirsten Olrik <[log in to unmask]> wrote:


From: Kirsten Olrik <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: SV: 回复: Killer Ulva "lactuca"?
To: [log in to unmask]
Date: Monday, 25 July, 2011, 4:13 PM

Dear Dr. Reddy,

I fully agree with you. The only way to control these algae that grow in very shallow water close to land, are by reducing the nitrogen outlets from land.

 

Ulva, Monostroma, and Enteromorpha have different salinity preferences, but all the three of them are out of control in water rich in soluble nitrogen, as they are experts on fast growth at excess of soluble nitrogen. Their life form as intermediates between single cells and multicelled sheets is uncontrollable. As soon as unfavourable conditions of some kind occur, all cells of the algal sheets are transformed into single celled swarmers and leave ‘skeleton sheets’.

 

Of course the alga itself is non-toxic. It is the environment it creates by producing ‘skeleton sheets’ on top of the growing sheets that are broken down by sulphide producing bacteria (Archaea). Sulphide is a cell toxin.

 

 

 

Best regards,

Kirsten Olrik

Environmental phycologist

Kirsten Olrik, biolog, Cand.scient, Ph.D.
Miljøbiologisk Laboratorium Aps
Postboks 34, Henningsens Allé 2 C
DK-2900 Hellerup
Mobil +45 28146254 

 


Fra: Forum for marine, freshwater and terrestrial algae. [mailto:[log in to unmask]] På vegne af C. R. K. Reddy
Sendt: 25. juli 2011 07:41
Til: [log in to unmask]
Emne: 回复: Killer Ulva "lactuca"?

 

Dear Dr. Duan,

 

The green alga that became menace in Brittany  is seems to be Ulva lactuca (?) while in China was Ulva prolifera (formerly known as Enteromorpha prolifera). I am sure the blooms of this algae in both places could be due to sudden availability of nutrients in abundance in addition to other environmental parameters that triggers monstrous growth causing unmanageable biomass production in the marine environment upsetting the delicate ecosystem balance. It is important to stop the inflow of nutrients from land runoff if one is serious about controlling its growth.  It is not possible to find a solution for containing its growth without first checking the inflow of required nutrients from land runoff. The ecosystem managers have to attend to this first.

 

The algae as such is not killer. We are making it and calling it as a killer. Ulva is the most commonest in the world. Why it is in   Brittany only so prolific and menace? One need to ponder on this.

 

C R K Reddy

Phycologist

 

From: Forum for marine, freshwater and terrestrial algae. [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Duan Weijun
Sent: Sunday, July 24, 2011 7:46 AM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: [ALGAE-L]
复: Killer Ulva "lactuca"?

 

Dear Dr. Michael Guiry,

 

The huge green tide also break out in the Yellow Sea of China from 2008 to 2011. The main green tide algae was identified as Ulva prolifera. I have take some pictures about the tide. Attachment pls find these pics about this huge green tide in 14 July, 2011. The problem is obviously a world problem. How to control and prevent the tide is still a serious thing.

 

Regards,



**************************************************************

Weijun Duan, Ph.D.
Ningbo Entry-exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau Technical Center of P. R. C
No. 9, Mayuan Road , Haishu District
Ningbo  315012, CHINA
Phone:0086-574-87022951
Fax:0086-574-87113584
E-mail:[log in to unmask],
[log in to unmask]" target="_blank" ymailto="mailto:[log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]



--- 11
723日,周六, Michael Guiry <[log in to unmask]> 写道:


发件人: Michael Guiry <[log in to unmask]>
: Killer Ulva "lactuca"?
收件人: [log in to unmask]
日期: 2011723,周六,下午8:24

Toxic seaweed on French coast sparks health fears

 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/8655329/Toxic-seaweed-on-French-coast-sparks-health-fears.html

 

france_1953418c.jpg

 

Conservationists say that toxic seaweed has now spread to more than 200 sites along the Atlantic coast from southern Brittany to the beaches of Normandy.

Bays popular with Britons from La Baule, a top summer beach destination in southern Brittany, to Granville in the Cotentin are now struggling to dispose of thousands of tons of Ulva lactuca – more commonly known as sea lettuce.

Experts have warned that the algae poses a health risk as when it rots it produces hydrogen sylphide, which if trapped under a seaweed crust and suddenly released can prove as deadly as cyanide.

Anses, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety, has just issued guidelines for dealing with the green sludge, saying it must be picked up within 48 hours of reaching the beach before it can start producing gas. If not, in the worst cases, it can cause "loss of consciousness with cardiac arrest or coma".

The seaweed has been multiplying abnormally fast due to the use of huge amounts of nitrates in intensive pig and poultry farming that seep into the region's rivers and water tables and end up in the sea.

"This year, all the conditions have come together for a growth in green algae," said Alain Ménesquen, expert from the state marine laboratory Ifremer. "The sun and warmth of May have allowed them to carry out photosynthesis, then the June rains brought all the nitrates they need to develop."

By the end of June, some 25,000 square metres of seaweed had been collected from the beaches of Brittany, twice as much as the previous year.

The worst affected area is Saint-Brieuc in the Côtes-d'Armor coast of Brittany, where around half of all the seaweed is washed up.

Earlier this month, two wild boar were found dead on the beach at Saint-Maurice in Morieux. The beach has been barricaded off ever since, with local authorities saying they had detected dangerous pockets of gas linked to seaweed deposits.

The official autopsy on the two animals found that they had died by asphyxiation due to presence of "mud in their airways" and the local government prefect insisted there was "no link" with seaweed.

But André Ollivro of the association, Halte aux marées vertes (Stop the Green Tides) said he was convinced seaweed was to blame. He said "dozens of dogs" die on this stretch of coast but nobody signals their deaths.

Yesterday, he and other anti-algae activists planted a plaque on the beach at Binic near Saint-Brieuc. It was in memory of Thierry Morfoisse who died of a heart attack while transporting rotting seaweed in a lorry in 2009. An investigation is still underway into the cause of his death.

The government launched anti-toxic seaweed plan last year after a horse died from breathing in toxic fumes at the beach in Saint-Michel-en-Grève in 2009 and his rider lost consciousness.

Ecologists say intensive pig and poultry farming is the main culprit.

In a shock campaign to raise awareness, the group France Nature Environnement, FNE, ran a poster campaign this Spring showing a toddler in armbands paddling in a seaweed-infested beach. The poster squarely blamed intensive pig farmers, who took the group to court and lost.

Benoît Hartmann of the FNE said the only solution was a "change in the agricultural model".

The huge concentration of pig and poultry farms in the region had "created nitrate emissions that hugely surpass the absorption capacity of the soil".

A reduction in seaweed requires nitrate concentrations to remain at 10mg per litre at the most, say experts. They are currently at between 30 and 40mg per litre in the region's waterways.

But on July 7, President Nicolas Sarkozy visited the area and in a clear display of pre-presidential electioneering, declared it was time to stop "fundamentalist" ecologists "pointing the finger at farmers".

He said the best solution for now was to step up seaweed collection and to build a factory to convert pig detritus rich in nitrates into biogas.

Mr Ménesquen of Ifremer said he found this approach "astonishing".

"This is backward-forward thinking that doesn't attack the source of the evil. There is no scientific reason to think that the phenomenon will stop by simply removing seaweed," he told Le Monde.

Besides, he added, the biomass factory would not deal with the nitrates, it would in fact leave them in a more concentrated form.

Farmers say they are making huge efforts and have cut the amount of nitrates they spray on the soil by three since 1998.

"More needs to be done, but we've done a lot already," said André Sergent, environmental vice president of the agricultural chamber of Finistère.

"We (farmers) find it hard to understand. Brittany lives essentially from agriculture. If we enter into a logic of destruction, the young will live on what?"

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========================================================
C. R. K. Reddy
Scientist
Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute,
Gijubhai Badheka Marg.
Bhavnagar , Gujarat 364021

www.csmcri.org

========================================================