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Sarah wrote:

> Could you supply a reference for this DNA-testing study?

Hi Sarah,
    The study is an on-going one, privately funded by various surname study
groups.  Nothing has been published yet except the raw numbers that may or
may not be on the net.  Each surname project is independent, but results are
usually shared between projects.  Most of the lab work is done at the
University of Arizona through Family Tree DNA, but there are labs in England
and the Germany that also provide such services.  There are approximately
900 surname projects in progress with the participation of about 20,000
people - each contributing between $100 to $260 for testing.
    In my own project (Livingston/MacLea), there are 20 participants who
have joined in the last year.  The DNA signatures we have gathered are
diverse, but they do "cluster".  In other words, one "haplotype" or DNA
signature of one branch of the Livingstons also tends to have Campbells,
MacGregors, Nortons, Stewarts and Lees associated with it.  A completly
differnet haplotype also has these same names associated with it, giving a
good indication that these families had a common ancestor.  This is not to
suggest that all Livingstons are necessarily genetically related to all
Campbells.  It only suggests that there is a tribal connection.
    We have a long way to go, with a need for many more participants.  But
it's not an easy task to get folks to fork over $200 bucks to join in.  They
have to be motivated in some way, and that usually means that they wish to
prove a connection to a very recent relative (within the last 200 years).
Our Livingston/MacLea participants are mostly American or Canadian, but we
have numerous English and Australian particpants as well.

Rob

Rob