Hi Marie, hi all,

> From: marie [mailto:[log in to unmask]]
> What result on finds would the tendency to build over useful or
> defensible sites have? M.

Actually, quite little. Settlement sites in Turkey tend to be socalled
"tells", which means that they are artifical hills that came into existence
by building new houses over the ruins of the old ones. The result from this
is that at the site where I was doing some survey two years ago, at
Buyuknefes (ancient Tavium), the main settlement mound is  28 meters high,
and covers an area of almost one square kilometer.
Thus, while earlier layers of course are not preserved in full, sufficent
material should remain to find more than enough La Tene material (which
would be what one would expect of at least early Galatian material) quite
easily, if it is there. However, as far as can be said as yet, it seems to
be, with some very rare exceptions, to be mostly absent.
This problem even exists in sites which were not built over after the
Galatian period in Turkey - Gordion, for instance, is such an example.
Gordion was well within Galatian territory, was not resettled after Manlius
conquered it in 189 BC, and the excavations carried out there have recovered
a 3rd and 2nd century BC layers, but no La Tene material has been found
So, basically, we are left with about 10 finds of "true" La Tene material in
Asia Minor, of which 7 are Iron fibulas of Middle La Tene form, and 3 are
gold torques, where one could already discuss wether they are really "La
Tene" torques or but simple gold neck rings without any real connection to
the typical La Tene material one would like to see.


Raimund Karl <mailto:[log in to unmask]>
Research Fellow for European Archaeology
Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies
National Library of Wales
Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Cymru, UK
SY23 3HH