Hi All,

Just a small note on the Galatian thread (about which I know very little, I hasten to addd):
St. Jerome seems to have written on the Celts in Galatia in the fourth century AD.  I'm assuming this is in his book on Places (Liber Locorum) but my source only mentions that he mentions the Celts in 'his works' (it's not a great source, really).  Apparently, Jerome says that a Celtic dialect was still being spoken there in his time. 
If this is true, it means that:
A - The Galatian Celts had survived as a recogniseable group in Galatia since the 3rd century BC and had maintainmed their language until at least the fourth century AD.
B - Jerome (or someone) must have had some way of recognising what a Celtic dialect sounded like.  This strikes me as quite amazing.  Could a non-linguist today identify Breton with Scots Gaelic?  I wonder how Jerome knew this piece of information.  Perhaps someone with a copy of Jerome's works can clue us in on what he actually says. 

Incidentally, the presence of Galatian Celts in Turkey was still being noted on maps of Asia made in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, based on Jerome's attestation.  The so-called 'Jerome Map' (British Library additional 10049 f. 64) shows them on the southern shore of the Black Sea, squeezed up between Phrygia and Nicomedia - but the scale and general layout of the map are very strange, as is common with medieval maps.   See P. D. A Harvey, Medieval Maps (British Library 1991) p. 72. 


Stephen McKenzie, Adelaide. 

Raimund Karl wrote:
[log in to unmask]">
Hi Marie, hi all,

From: marie [mailto:[log in to unmask]]

What result on finds would the tendency to build over useful or
defensible sites have? M.

Actually, quite little. Settlement sites in Turkey tend to be socalled
"tells", which means that they are artifical hills that came into existence
by building new houses over the ruins of the old ones. The result from this
is that at the site where I was doing some survey two years ago, at
Buyuknefes (ancient Tavium), the main settlement mound is 28 meters high,
and covers an area of almost one square kilometer.
Thus, while earlier layers of course are not preserved in full, sufficent
material should remain to find more than enough La Tene material (which
would be what one would expect of at least early Galatian material) quite
easily, if it is there. However, as far as can be said as yet, it seems to
be, with some very rare exceptions, to be mostly absent.
This problem even exists in sites which were not built over after the
Galatian period in Turkey - Gordion, for instance, is such an example.
Gordion was ! well within Galatian territory, was not resettled after Manlius
conquered it in 189 BC, and the excavations carried out there have recovered
a 3rd and 2nd century BC layers, but no La Tene material has been found
So, basically, we are left with about 10 finds of "true" La Tene material in
Asia Minor, of which 7 are Iron fibulas of Middle La Tene form, and 3 are
gold torques, where one could already discuss wether they are really "La
Tene" torques or but simple gold neck rings without any real connection to
the typical La Tene material one would like to see.


Raimund Karl <mailto:[log in to unmask]>
Research Fellow for European Archaeology
Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies
National Library of Wales
Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Cymru, UK
SY23 3HH