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WELSH-L  February 1993

WELSH-L February 1993

Subject:

Cara Wallia Derelicta

From:

Geraint Jones <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

WELSH Language Bulletin Board <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 5 Feb 93 21:53:15 GMT

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (117 lines)

[Paraphrased below, with historical mumbojumbo for the Nationally impaired.]
 
Gan nad oes neb wedi mentro (yn gyhoeddus) ar hon, dyma gais;  mi wn i nad
ydw i'n deallt y cyfan felly mi fyddwn i'n falch o gael fy nghynorthwyo a'm
cywiro.
 
(  Can anyone help me translate a Latin/Welsh manuscript by David Jones?  Some
 ) of the word breaks may be misplaced, I have copied directly from a
(  reproduction of a hand-painted manuscript page. Here is the text:
 )
(  Cara Wallia Derelicta
 ) Dugwyl damaseus bab yr unued dyd ardeg o vis ragfyr dug gwenert ac yna i
(  bwriwyd hoil cymry  Y r ilawr.
 ) Venit summa dies et ineluctabile tempus dardaniae. Penndragon
(  Pendreic oed arnae penn ilywelyn deg dygyn a vraw byt bot pawl haern
 ) trwydaw.
(  Ab hieme an 1282
 ) Nyt oes na xyngor na xlo nac egor
(
 ) References or further reading to 'Cara Wallia Derelicta' would be helpful.
 
Daw'r Gymnraeg o `Brenhinedd y Saeson', un o'r llawysgrifau cyfochrog a Brut
y Tywysogion, yn adrodd hanes lladd Llywelyn y Llyw Olaf:
 
        Ddugwyl Damaseus Bab, yr unved dydd ar ddec o vis Ragfyr,
        duw Gwener.  Ac yna y bwriwyd holl Gymry y'r llawr.
 
Mae'r ail frawddeg yn Llyfr Du Basing, ond heb fod yn y testunau hun, ac fe
dybir mai ychwanegiad diweddar (wedi gwrthryfel Glyndwr) sydd yma.  Hwyrach
bod y Lladin yn dod yn wreiddiol o lawysgrifau tebyg, fel yr Annales Cambriae
neu Blwyddnodion Lladin Caerwynt.  Wn i ddim, ac mi rydw i'n ffodus (hwyrach)
i fod o'r genhedlaeth gynatf gafodd ddod i Rydychen heb level O Lladin!
 
Wedi hynny rydw i ar dir llawer mwy bregus.  Synnwn i ddim nad ydy gweddill y
Gymraeg o'r un ffynhonnell.  Mae'n debyg bod llawer sy'n darllen y neges yma
yn gwybod mwy na mi am hen lawysgrifau a'u hiaith.  Un peth sy'n amlwg, mai
camddarlleniad o'r `Ll' yn orgraff David Jones yw'r `il'.
___
Anglice:
The Welsh bits, at least, come from Brenhinedd y Saeson from old manuscripts;
this one seems to be the version in the Black Book of Basing (I cannot at the
moment remember whether this is the modern Baschurch, or Basingstoke -- I
expect that it is the former).  In a more modern orthography the bit I know
from memory would be:
 
        Dygwyl Damaseus Bab, ur ufed dydd ar ddeg o fis Rhagfyr,
        dydd Gwener.  Ac yna y bwriwyd holl Gymry i'r llawr.
 
        The feast of Pope Thomas (?), the eleventh of December, a Friday.
	And then was all Wales brought down (lit. thrown to the floor).
 
The second sentence appears in the Black Book but not in older sources and may
well have been added to the cronicle at the time of the Glyndwr uprising.
 
After that I am guessing.  I cannot really do this old stuff, except to
recognise odd words.  Your transcription of `il' is in fact an archaic (or
perhaps David Jonesian) form of the letter Ll as a single character, for
example;  the D with a bar which you have rendered as D is similarly Dd;
and the `x' are Greek letter chi for Ch.
 
   Penn dragon penn dreic oed arnaw penn Llywelyn deg dygyn
   Pendragon pendraig oedd arno pen Llywelyn deg dygn
        Chief (mumble, pen dragon, chief + standard = leader, something
        like that; go on, there are people out there who can do this
	properly...) on it was Llywelyn, fair and severe.
 
   a vraw byt bot pawl haearn trwydaw.
   a braw bydd bod polyn haearn trwydaw.
        And fear shall there be (for) there is an iron pole through him.
 
   Nyt oes na chyngor na chlo nac egor
   Nid oes na chyngor, na chlo, nac agor.
        There is neither counsel, nor shutting (locking) nor opening.
 
The Latin may well be from parallel manuscripts like the Annales Cambriae or
the Latin Chronicle of Winchester.
___
In case you don't know the context, the event in question is the killing of
Llywelyn y Llyw Olaf, by an (English) spear in the back.  This was on the
banks of Irfon at Cilmeri, the night before a battle which never happened.
It is said that this was a result of his being betrayed to the English,
although that story may well also date from the time of Glyndwr.  The final
fall of the house of Gwynedd came a little over a year later and was followed
by a subtle and cruel act of geneticide of the sort that was in fashion in
those days.
                                                                              /
There are those that treat 1282 as the end of history, and those that think  /
it is where modern Welsh history begins.                                    / g
 
 
      Cilmeri, Gerallt Lloyd Owen
 
      Fin nos, fan hyn                       At dusk, here
      Lladdwyd Llywelyn.                     Llywelyn was killed.
      Fyth nid anghofiaf hyn.                Never will I forget this.
 
      Y nant a welaf fan hyn                 The stream I see here
      A welodd Llywelyn.                     Llywelyn saw.
      Camodd ar y cerrig hyn.                He walked on these stones.
 
      Fin nos, fan hyn                       At dusk, here
      O'r golwg nesai'r gelyn.               out of sight the enemy approached.
      Fe wnaed y cyfan fan hyn.              All was done here.
 
      Rwyf fi'n awr fan hyn                  I am now here
      Lle bu'i wallt ar welltyn              where his hair lay on grass
      A dafnau o'i waed fan hyn.             and drops of his blood here.
 
      Fan hyn yw ein cof ni,                 This place is our memory,
      Fan hyn sy'n adnadl inni,              this place is breath to us,
      Fan hyn gynnau fu'n geni.              this place then was our birth.
 
 
(Bron i gyd ar gof, heb gorfod edrych am
 Gerddi'r Cywilydd...  mae'n rhaid bod o
 wedi gwneud argraff ddofn arna i.)

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