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Subject:

Re: acen yn y Gymraeg

From:

Andrew Hawke <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

WELSH Language Bulletin Board <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 18 Aug 1998 11:09:56 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (127 lines)


NEGES HIR!

Mae tipyn o drafodaeth wedi bod yn y gorffennol ar y pwnc hwn, ac mae'n dda
gweld bod rhai o'r safonau newydd yn cynnwys yr HOLL lythrennau acennog sydd
eu hangen yn y Gymraeg (e.e. Unicode ar Windows NT4). Cwestiwn arall yw'r
ffontiau eu hunain. Mae rhai ffontiau OpenType (safon newydd Microsoft/
Adobe) yn cynnwys yr holl lythrennau acennog (e.e. Times New Roman).

'Rwyf wedi bod mewn cysylltiad ag aelodau o wahanol bwyllgorau cenedlaethol
yr ISO (gyda llaw, i gynrychiolydd yr Iseldiroedd y mae'r diolch am y ffaith
fod set 16-bit yr ISO yn cynnwys y llythrennau acennog Cymraeg i gyd - ac
felly Unicode) a hefyd Microsoft (Cymraes, drwy lwc, sy'n gweithio
i Microsoft ar OpenType) drwy gyfrwng Cymro (di-Gymraeg) o Vancouver o'r enw
John Hudson sy'n rhedeg cwmni teipograffeg o'r enu Tiro Typeworks
(http://www.tiro.com).

Ychwanegaf y sylwadau a anfonais ato ar y pryd, rhag ofn eu bod o ryw werth:

===================== COPIED MATERIAL FOLLOWS ================

Modern usage of the diacritics in Welsh is as follows:

(All diacritics are shown following the vowel which is accented, e.g.
a^ represents a lower-case a with a circumflex accent.)

Welsh requires the circumflex (^), acute ('), grave (`), and diaeresis (")
on all vowels, i.e. a, e, i, o, u w, y (w being used in Welsh both as a
vowel and a semi-vowel). The incidence of these combinations varies very
widely.

All diacritics (accents) in Modern standard Welsh are non-optional and are
used to differentiate between different pronunciations of otherwise
similar- or identical-looking words, either in terms of length (long vs.
short) or stress. The stress accent in Welsh always falls on the penultimate
syllable, unless an accent (or a hyphen or an inserted h) indicates otherwise.

BECAUSE OF THIS, ALL THE ACCENTED WELSH CHARACTERS ARE REQUIRED, IN BOTH
UPPER- AND LOWER-CASE FORMS.

The circumflex is used solely to indicate that a vowel is long in a context
in which it would normally be expected to be short, e.g.:

        gwa^n `he pierces' vs. gwan `weak'
        gwe^n `a smile' vs. gwen `white (fem.)'
        pi^n `pine (wood, tree)' vs. pi`n `a pin'
        co^r `a choir' vs. cor `a dwarf'
        bu^m `I was (perfect)' vs. bum `five (mutated)'
        tw^r `a tower' vs. twr `a group'
        y^m `we are' vs. ym `in (before m)'

The diaeresis is used to separate vowels, as in English:

        prosa"ig `prosaic', cre"wr `creator', copi"o `to copy',
        tro"edigaeth `conversion', du"wch `blackness', Rebacay"ddiaeth
        `Rebaccaism', cyw"res `concubine'

The acute accent is used to indicate unexpected stress (i.e. not on the
penultimate):

        casa'u `to hate', case't `cassette', ricri'wt `a recruit'
        paraso'l `a parasol', rebu'wc `a rebuke',
        caridy'ms `riff-raff', gw'raidd `manly' (this last is on the
        penult, but is to distinguish it from the word gwraidd `root',
        which is monosyllabic)

The grave accent is used to indicate that a vowel is short in a context
in which it would normally be expected to be long:

        pa`s `a pass, permit' vs. pas `a cough'
        sie`d `a shed' vs. sie^d/sied `escheat'
        sgi`l `a skill' vs. sgi^l/sgil `following'
        no`d `a nod' vs. nod `a target, an aim'
        cu`l `a hut' vs. cul `narrow'
        mw`g `a mug' vs. mwg `smoke (n.)'
        py`g `dirty' vs. pyg `pitch, tar'

Generally speaking, diacritics in Welsh cannot reasonably be omitted as they
are used either to show unusual stress, or to differentiate between pairs of
otherwise identical words with different pronunciations. As such they are
equally necessary in upper- and lower-case forms.

The commonest diacritic is the circumflex, followed by the acute and diaeresis
probably about equally. The grave is rare, but as more and more words are
borrowed from English, and new compounds coined for technical terms, their
use will undoubtedly increase.

To give a very rough indication, according to the headwords in our
(unfinished)
dictionary (which we estimate will contain about about 84,500 entries), the
number of accented keywords (extrapolated to the expected finished size of the
dictionary) will be roughly:

        circumflex: 2,000; diaeresis: 880; acute: 500; grave: 160

All the above remarks refer to Modern Welsh orthography. Older texts have
various systems, none of which are of any great importance. One character
that comes to mind is v+acute (when used to represent u), but it is of no
great importance.

=========================== COPIED MATERIAL ENDS ==========================

Teimlaf yn gryf ei bod yn werth pwyso ar bobl i gynnwys yr HOLL lythrennau
acennog, os oes modd yn y byd, gan eu bod i gyd yn bwysig, ond os oes RHAID
dethol rhai, (a chofio fod y+', Y+' ac y+" eisoes ym mhob set diolch i
ieithoedd
eraill) y lleiaf pwysig yw w+", yna, mae'n debyg, w+' ac y+`. Rhaid cofio
am y priflythrennau, sydd yr un mor bwysig yn y Gymraeg (gan mai
gwahaniaethu rhwng parau o eiriau a yngenir yn wahanol yw eu swyddogaeth),
ond o ran post-e a.y.b., mae'n debyg y gellid eu hepgor petai'n rhaid.

Serch hynny, mae neges Markus yn so^n am ddefnydd reit helaeth o'r set ar
bob math o beiriannau a chyfrifiaduron, ac os oes modd cael popeth, gorau
oll. (Ni raid ond edrych yn Y Cymro i weld beth mai diffyg ffontiau Cymraeg
wedi ei wneud i'r iaith.)

Gobeithio bod hyn o ryw ddefnydd

Andrew


-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
Andrew Hawke [log in to unmask] (01970) 627513 (+44) 1970 627513 (fx 627066)
Golygydd Cynorthwyol/Rheolwr Systemau Assistant Editor/Systems Manager
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru University of Wales Dictionary
Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru National Library of Wales
Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3HH Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3HH, U.K.
                      URL: http://www.aber.ac.uk/~gpcwww/


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