LISTSERV mailing list manager LISTSERV 16.5

Help for CELTIC-L Archives


CELTIC-L Archives

CELTIC-L Archives


CELTIC-L@LISTSERV.HEANET.IE


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

CELTIC-L Home

CELTIC-L Home

CELTIC-L  April 1998

CELTIC-L April 1998

Subject:

Irish: Lesson Fourteen (unaccented)

From:

Neil Alasdair McEwan <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

CELTIC-L - The Celtic Culture List.

Date:

Sun, 26 Apr 1998 23:28:05 -0300

Content-Type:

TEXT/PLAIN

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (307 lines)

LESSON FOURTEEN  --  CEACHT A CEATHAIR DE/AG



Genitive After Prepositions
---------------------------


    As well as indicating possession, the genitive case of a noun is used
after certain specific prepositions such as "chun" (to), "cois" (beside),
"da/la" (by), "fearacht" (like, as), "timpeall" (around) and "trasna"
(across):


      An Ro/imh              --   Rome
-->   chun na Ro/imhe        --   to Rome

      an domhan              --   the world
-->   timpeall an domhain    --   around the world

      an pha/irc             --   the field
-->   trasna na pa/irce      --   across the field


     The genitive is also used after all "compound" prepositions
(prepositions of more than one word), e.g. "ar fud" (throughout), "ar
son" (for the sake of), "i ndiaidh" (after), "os cionn" (above) etc.
This will be discussed more fully in another lesson.



Plural of Adjectives
--------------------


   Adjectives agree with nouns in case and number, which means that when
a noun is plural its adjective is plural, when a noun is genitive its
adjective is genitive, and so on.  As mentioned in Lesson Three, this only
applies when the adjective directly qualifies the noun.

   The most common way to form the plural of an adjective is to add "-a"
to it:


    teach mo/r     --   big house
--> tithe mo/ra    --   big houses

    caili/n o/g     --   young girl
--> caili/ni/ o/ga  --   young girls


    If the adjective's final vowel is slender, "-e" may be added instead:


    a/it ciu/in        --   quiet place
--> a/iteanna ciu/ine  --   quiet places


    Adding these final vowels can cause the loss of the previous final
vowel:


    duine la/idir      --   strong man
--> daoine la/idre     --   strong men


    Adjectives ending in "-u/il" change to "-u/la" in the plural:


    duine leisciu/il   --   lazy man
--> daoine leisciu/la  --   lazy men


Some common irregular plurals are a/lainn (beautiful) --> a/ille; tirim
(dry) --> tiorma; uasal (noble) --> uaisle; te (hot) --> teo; brea/ (fine)
--> brea/tha.

    You've learned that adjectives following a singular feminine noun are
aspirated e.g. "eaglais mho/r" (big church).  In the plural, adjectives
following feminine plural nouns are not aspirated, but they *are*
aspirated if they follow a masculine plural noun whose ending is slender,
i.e. whose last vowel is a slender one (e or i).  Contrast the feminine
word "su/il" (eye) with the masculine word "ba/d" (boat).  We want to apply
the word "gorm" (blue) to both of them in the plural:


Singular:  su/il ghorm   --  a blue eye
Plural:    su/ile gorma  --  blue eyes

  but:

Singular:  ba/d gorm     --  blue boat
Plural:    ba/id ghorma  --  blue boats


    Because the plural of "ba/d", which is "ba/id", has the slender vowel
"i" at the end, it aspirates the adjective that comes after it, whereas
the feminine plural leaves the adjective unaffected -- almost the
opposite to what happens in the singular.



Genitive Singular of Adjectives
-------------------------------


    The behaviour of adjectives when they follow nouns in the genitive is
as haphazard as that of the nouns themselves, but luckily the Christian
Bros. managed to isolate the nine different kinds of adjective and
describe their genitive forms depending on whether they're following a
masculine or feminine noun.  Note that feminine adjectives are never
aspirated in the genitive singular or in the plural, but masculine ones
are:


   Adjective      Gen. Sing. Masc.     Gen. Sing. Fem.     Nom. Plural
   ---------      ----------------     ---------------     -----------

1. ba/n, "white"      bha/in              ba/ine             ba/na
2. di/reach,
     "straight"       dirigh              diri/            di/reacha
3. bacach, "lame"     bacaigh             bacai/            bacacha
4. leisciu/il,
     "lazy"          leisciu/il         leisciu/la         leisciu/la
5. mall, "slow"        mall               maille             malla
6. maith, "good"       maith              maithe             maithe
7. bui/och,
     "grateful"       bui/och            bui/thi/          bui/ocha
8. gna/ch, "usual"    gna/ch             gna/thai/          gna/cha


    The usual disclaimer applies: there's little point in memorizing
these forms or worrying about them; as long as you can generally
recognize them when they appear in an Irish text you'll get used to them
over time.


Genitive Plural of Adjectives
-----------------------------


    How an adjective is declined in the plural depends on the
noun it's qualifying.   In Lesson 13 we learned the difference between a
strong-plural noun and a weak-plural noun.  Weak nouns have the same
genitive plural and nominative singular, but strong nouns have the same
genitive plural and nominative plural.  If an adjective follows a strong-
plural noun, it has the same form for all cases of the plural, e.g.:


Nominative Plural:  na caili/ni/ o/ga    --  the young girls
Genitive Plural:    na gcaili/ni/ o/ga   --  of the young girls


    But if an adjective follows a weak-plural noun, it has the same form
in the genitive plural as it does in the nominative singular:


Nominative Plural:  na fir o/ga     --   the young men
Genitive Plural:    na bhfear o/g   --   of the young men



Infinitive with Object
----------------------


     Previously, we learned that the infinitive form of the verb is just
the verbal noun without "ag" in front of it:


     ag dul                      --  going
-->  Ba mhaith liom dul abhaile. --  I'd like to go home.
                    ^^^                       ^^^^^

     ag caitheamh                 --  smoking
-->  An fe/idir liom caitheamh?   --  May I smoke?
                    ^^^^^^^^^              ^^^^^


     There is no direct object in these sentences.  When one is added,
the infinitive changes in form slightly -- it is aspirated when possible
and is prefixed by "a".  If we change the second sentence in the example
above and add "toiti/n" (a cigarette) as the direct object, we get


  An fe/idir liom toiti/n a chaitheamh?   --   May I smoke a cigarette?


     Note how the infinitive then gets pushed to the end of the
sentence.  Some other examples:


     ag fa/il    --   getting
-->  Bhi/ se/ ag iarraidh radharc maith a fha/il.
                              --   He was asking to get a good view.
                                    (lit: he was asking a good view to get)

     ag di/ol    --   selling
-->  Ba mhaith le/i an teach a dhi/ol.
                              --   She would like to sell the house.
                                    (lit: she would like the house to sell)



Subjunctive Tense
-----------------


    The present subjunctive is a tense that isn't even covered in some
Irish textbooks, but is one that learners find very useful, because it
covers the idea of wishing something and so appears in some famous Irish
proverbs and blessings.  It's considered an old-fashioned tense for daily
speech (except in set phrases) but still appears often in print.

    The subjunctive is normally formed from "Go" (which eclipses, and
adds "n-" to a verb beginning with a vowel), plus the subjunctive form of
the verb, plus the subject, plus the thing being wished for.  For
instance, the subjunctive form of "teigh" (go) is "te/":


       Go dte/ tu/ sla/n.   --   May you be well.
                                    (lit: may you go well)


    Or again, the subjunctive of "tabhair" (give) is "tuga":


       Go dtuga Dia ciall duit.   --  May God give you sense.


    Or to take a third example, sometimes the wish is also a curse, like
this one from Tory Island in Donegal:


Go nde/ana an Diabhal toirneach de d'anam in Ifreann.
                 --  May the Devil make thunder of your soul in Hell.


    The Irish phrase for "thank you" -- go raibh maith agat -- uses the
subjunctive of "bi" and literally means "may there be good at-you".


    The subjunctive of regular verbs is as follows:


1st Conjugation:
a) "mol":  mola me/, tu/, se/, si/; molaimid; mola sibh, siad.
b) "bris":  brise me/, tu/, se/, si/; brisimid; brise sibh, siad.

2nd Conjugation:
a) "beannaigh":  beannai/ me/, tu/, se/, si/; beannai/mid; beannai/ sibh,
   siad.
b) "bailigh":  baili/ me/, tu/, se/, si/; baili/mid; baili/ sibh, siad.


   E.g. "go mbeannai/ Dia thu/" -- May God bless you.



Three Irregular Verbs
---------------------


    Over the next few lessons I'll gradually give the forms for the ten
Irish verbs that are at least partly irregular.  The three I'll give
today are feic, "see", tabhair, "give", and abair, "say".


1) Root: "feic"; Verbal Noun: "ag feicea/il"

Present Tense: feicim; feiceann tu/, se/, si/; feicimid; feiceann sibh,
   siad.
Past Tense: chonaic me/, tu/, se/, si/, muid, sibh, siad.
Past Tense, Negative: ni/ fhaca me/, tu/, se/, si/, muid, sibh, siad.
Future Tense: feicfidh me/, tu/, se/; feicfimid; feicfidh sibh, siad.
Conditional Tense: d'fheicfinn; d'fheicfea/; d'fheicfeadh se/, si/;
   d'fheicfimis; d'fheicfeadh sibh; d'fheicfidi/s.
Present Subjunctive: feice me/, tu/, se/, si/; feicimid; feice sibh, siad.
Past Passive: chonachthas ("was seen").


2) Root: "tabhair"; Verbal Noun: "ag tabhairt"

Present Tense: tugaim; tugann tu/, se/; tugaimid; tugann sibh, siad.
Past Tense: thug me/, tu/, se/, si/, muid, sibh, siad.
Future Tense: tabharfaidh me/, tu/, se/, si/; tabharfaimid; tabharfaidh
   sibh, siad.
Conditional Tense: thabharfainn; thabharfa/; thabharfadh se/, si/;
   thabharfaimis; thabharfadh sibh; thabharfaidi/s.
Present Subjunctive: tuga me/, tu/, se/, si/; tugaimid; tuga sibh, siad.
Past Passive: tugadh ("was given").


3) Root: "abair"; Verbal Noun: "ag ra/"

Present Tense: deirim; deir tu/, se/, si/; deirimid; deir sibh, siad.
Past Tense: du/irt me/, tu/, se/, si/, muid, sibh, siad.  (Also "dubhairt").
Future Tense: de/arfaidh me/, tu/, se/, si/; de/arfaimid; de/arfaidh sibh,
   siad.
Conditional Tense: de/arfainn; de/arfa/; de/arfadh se/, si/; de/arfaimis;
   de/arfadh sibh; de/arfaidi/s.
Present Subjunctive: deire me/, tu/, se/, si/; deirimid; deire sibh, siad.
Past Passive: du/radh ("was said")


--

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

Advanced Options


Options

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password


Search Archives

Search Archives


Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe


Archives

January 2019
December 2018
September 2018
March 2018
January 2018
December 2017
March 2017
February 2017
January 2017
November 2016
August 2016
May 2016
April 2016
March 2016
February 2016
January 2016
December 2015
November 2015
October 2015
September 2015
July 2015
June 2015
May 2015
March 2015
February 2015
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
August 2014
June 2014
May 2014
February 2014
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
September 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
May 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
January 2002
December 2001
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
July 2001
June 2001
May 2001
April 2001
March 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
June 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
October 1998
September 1998
August 1998
July 1998
June 1998
May 1998
April 1998
March 1998
February 1998
January 1998
December 1997
November 1997
October 1997
September 1997
August 1997
July 1997
June 1997
May 1997
April 1997
March 1997
February 1997
January 1997
December 1996
November 1996
October 1996
September 1996
August 1996
July 1996
June 1996
May 1996
April 1996
March 1996
February 1996
January 1996
December 1995
November 1995
October 1995
September 1995
August 1995
July 1995
June 1995
May 1995
April 1995
March 1995
February 1995
January 1995
December 1994
November 1994
October 1994
September 1994
August 1994
July 1994
June 1994
May 1994
April 1994
March 1994
February 1994
January 1994
December 1993
November 1993
October 1993
September 1993
August 1993
July 1993
June 1993
May 1993
April 1993
March 1993
February 1993
January 1993
December 1992
November 1992
October 1992
September 1992
August 1992
July 1992
June 1992
May 1992
April 1992
March 1992
February 1992
January 1992
December 1991
November 1991
October 1991
September 1991
August 1991
July 1991
June 1991
May 1991

ATOM RSS1 RSS2



LISTSERV.HEANET.IE

Secured by F-Secure Anti-Virus CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager