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AFRIK-IT  September 1996

AFRIK-IT September 1996

Subject:

Re: Updated List: African Countries "Connected" - ???

From:

Patrick O'Beirne <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

African Network of IT Experts and Professionals (ANITEP) List

Date:

Wed, 4 Sep 1996 07:34:57 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (628 lines)

At 11:11 02/09/96 -0700, you wrote:
>If anyone can help Hans with such a list, please respond directly to him at:
>
>                [log in to unmask] (Hans PRUIM)
>[Others might be interested, as well.]
--------------------------------( cut here )--------------------------------
Path:
salzo!dg-rtp.dg.com!wellspring.us.dg.com!news.sprintlink.net!hpg30a.csc.cuhk
.hk!news.cuhk.edu.hk!news.uoregon.edu!news.kreonet.re.kr!usenet.seri.re.kr!n
ews.cais.net!newsfeed.internetmci.com!bloom-beacon.mit.edu!senator-bedfellow
.mit.edu!faqserv
From: [log in to unmask]   (Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond)
Newsgroups:
comp.mail.misc,comp.mail.uucp,news.newusers.questions,alt.internet.services,
alt.internet.access.wanted,alt.answers,comp.answers,news.answers
Subject: FAQ: International E-mail accessibility
Summary: This posting gives a list of country codes with email accessibility.
Message-ID: <[log in to unmask]>
Date: 29 Apr 1996 15:16:55 GMT
Expires: 12 Jun 1996 15:16:14 GMT
Reply-To: [log in to unmask]
Followup-To: poster
Organization: Imperial College London, UK.
Lines: 587
Approved: [log in to unmask]
Supersedes: <[log in to unmask]>
NNTP-Posting-Host: bloom-picayune.mit.edu
X-Last-Updated: 1996/04/26
Originator: [log in to unmask]

Archive-name: mail/country-codes
Last-modified: 1996/04/26

Based on International Standard ISO 3166 Names
Compiled by Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond
E-mail: <[log in to unmask]>
Release: 96.04.02


Release Notes:   a. Burkina Faso (BF) and Central African
                    Republic (CF) with Full Internet (FI).
                 b. World Wide Web (WWW) Maps on-line !

This document is Copyright 1995 by Olivier Crepin-Leblond.
No part of this document may be reproduced in any commercial publication
by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording, taping, or storage in an information retrieval system without
prior written permission of the copyright holder.
It may however be freely redistributed in its entirety provided that
this copyright notice, its headers "Archive-name", "Last-modified",
and "Release" are not removed.

     Every now-and-then there are enquiries on the net regarding
E-mail to a distant country. The question is often of the type
"has that country got E-mail access ?". The following table is a
guide of country codes, showing the countries which have access to
Internet or general E-mail services.  The country codes have been
derived from the  International Organization for Standardization
standard ISO 3166.  A country code is taken as a top level domain
once it is registered at rs.internic.net so *not* all country codes
listed are top level domains. At the bottom of the table, there is
also a section of general top level domains, based on the information
available at rs.internic.net.

NOTES:

1. Description of codes:

FI  stands for FULL INTERNET access. This includes 'telnet', 'ftp',
    and internet E-mail.
B   stands for BITNET access although the address may be in internet
    DNS (Domain Name System) format.
*   (Asterisk) means that the country is reachable by E-mail. If this is
    not preceded by FI or B, it means that the connection may be a UUCP
    connection. An asterisk is included after FI or B for consistency.
PFI stands for a provisional full internet connection.(+)
P   stands for provisional connection. (+)
    (+) This is used when one or more of the following is true:
       - address not verified or lack of address
       - UUCP dialup not active
       - net connection possible but not officially announced
       - premature official announcement of connection
F  stands for a country that is connected to Internet only via means
   of the FIDOnet network. It is assumed that the FIDO connection in this
   case is stable and reliable.

2. Networks which are not included:

Networks such as MILNET (U.S. Military's unclassified portion of the
DDN - Data Defense Network) have computers all around the world. It is
generally possible to assume that wherever there is a U.S. military base,
there will be a node reachable through gateways.

Private company networks such as for DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.),
or Sun Microsystems, for example, have nodes in many exotic locations.
However the connection may take place via UUCP and cost a lot of money.
Those networks have therefore not been included. In addition, those
are PRIVATE networks.

Many companies ( like U.S. Sprint, for example ) offer commercial
services to many countries which are not readily available on
the Internet. The service is VERY COSTLY, usually takes place via
UUCP or X.400 connections. X.400 E-mail is usually charged to
someone and if the telecommunication carrier cannot find someone
to pay for the message transfer, it will reject it. As a result,
those types of network have not been included in the list.
Although a user may RECEIVE E-mail from a user on those networks, one
may not be able to reply to it.


3. Updates:

    The situation changes from day to day. The growth in international
networking is such that the information contained in this document
may be out of date by the time it reaches you.
If you have any update (i.e. knowledge that a new country is connected),
please send a message to <[log in to unmask]>, including an example address
from the country reached so that it can be verified.
Furthermore, if you are a connection provider or could provide a
low cost connection in a country, and are not listed as a provider in
that country (see "FURTHER INFORMATION" section), please notify either
Randy Bush <[log in to unmask]> or me.
NOTE: This doesn't include providers for North America.
If you are a North American provider, then please DON'T contact us.


4. .US sites

    While there are several hundreds of BITNET nodes in USA, none have
a name in the format `.US'. That's why the .us domain is only FI and *.

5. .edu, .com, etc.

    The domains in this section are special in that some of them are
used in more than one country. The domains which have full internet
access are marked accordingly. However, this doesn't mean that *all*
of  those  domains  have  full  internet  access.   For   example,
only a small proportion of .mil sites have full internet access. The
same is true for .com sites, for example.

6. UK and GB domains

     There are two codes for United Kingdom, namely UK and GB. While
UK is used for addressing of most domains in DNS format, the field
GB is used mainly in the X.400 addressing of United Kingdom sites.
However, there is an increasing trend in some United Kingdom sites
being directly connected to Internet under the GB domain. The GB domain
is hence a perfectly suitable Internet top level domain.
When looking for further information, it is worth looking at both
UK and GB for United Kingdom.

7. Further information column

     This column contains information as follows:

- E-mail address of a contact from which further information may be obtained
  and/or
- Details of a gopher system that can be queried for further information
  in this case, look at Section 8: Where to find further information
  or
- If no other information available: nameserver details, if any.
  This is the main nameserver as listed in the rs.internic.net database.
  Those often change as the network grows, and it is hard to keep track of
  all nameservers, but they should usually work. Nameservers can be
  queried by users using nslookup.

8. Where to find further information

  A number of sites run on-line information databases, mail-servers,
and gopher information systems where further information can be found.

- rs.internic.net
    Part of this site, the InterNIC database services, contains the
  Internet "white pages". The "whois" section of the "white pages"
  has registration records for top level domains. "whois" can be
  accessed by connecting interactively (telnet rs.internic.net),
  or via gopher (gopher rs.internic.net) or using the "whois"
  command available on some computer systems (whois -h rs.internic.net).
  Registration records for a domain are sometimes useful since they
  provide Administrative and Technical Contacts for this domain
  and those may hence be able to provide further information.
  Whois can also be accessible by E-mailing [log in to unmask]<br>
  and subject: whois <name/domain>

- gopher.ripe.net
    This is a gopher system run by ripe.net, the co-ordinator for
  European Internet nodes. It contains a lot of information regarding
  European IP, etc. It may be accessed either as "gopher gopher.ripe.net"
  or "telnet gopher.ripe.net" and logging-in appropriately.
  It also has a "whois" database.

- GNET: an Archive and Electronic Journal
  This is co-ordinated by Larry Press <[log in to unmask]>
  Archived documents are available by anonymous ftp from the
  directory global_net at dhvx20.csudh.edu (155.135.1.1).  To
  conserve bandwidth, the archive contains an abstract of each
  document, as well as the full document.
  In addition to the archive, there is a moderated GNET
  discussion list.
  To submit a document to the archive or subscribe to the moderated
  discussion list, use the address [log in to unmask]

- BITNIC Bitnet Network Information Center
    Bitnet LISTSERVs contain files which list all BITNET sites around
  the world. For a listing of all BITNET sites, in country code order,
  send a message to [log in to unmask] (or LISTSERV@BITNIC for
  BITNET folks), no subject, and the command:
  GET NODES INFO3
  in the body of the message.
  A very long file of information on all international BITNET sites
  can be ftp'ed from Bitnic.educom.edu and is called BITEARN.NODES .
  It is more than 2Mb long.

- www.nsrc.org
    This Web system, maintained by the Network Startup Resource
  Center and PSGnet/RAINet contains perhaps the most comprehensive
  collection of information about country connectivity.
  It's top level reference is: http://www.nsrc.org/ and the
  coloured maps held in http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/misc/bymap/world.html
  point to further information www.nsrc.org.
  A gopher system, "gopher.psg.com" is accessible through gopher.
  For the gopher client impaired, one can telnet to gopher.psg.com
  and login as gopher.
  An important feature is an E-mail interface to access the information
  in the gopher system.
  Send E-mail to: [log in to unmask]
  any subject, and in the body of the message:

  send country/<country-code>

  Example: if you want further information about Brazil (country code BR)

  send country/BR

  Many thanks to Randy Bush <[log in to unmask]> and to John Klensin
  <[log in to unmask]> for setting-up this site and this
  collaborative effort.

9. Archiving

    Once released, this document is archived in a number of archive
sites around the world. Amongst them:

 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu:/pub/usenet/news.answers/mail/
 ftp://lth.se:/pub/netnews/news.answers/mail/
#ftp://ftp.uu.net:/usenet/news.answers/mail/
#ftp://unix.hensa.ac.uk:/mirrors/uunet/usenet/news.answers/mail/
#ftp://ftp.univ-lyon1.fr:/pub/faq/by-name/mail/

(#) those may not be accessible via Bear access or direct PC access
    in some cases.

All FAQs are also available via [log in to unmask]   or
[log in to unmask] . For an index of all FAQs available,
put the command GET NETFAQS FILELIST in the body of your message.

The document is also retrievable by E-mail from rtfm.mit.edu by
sending an E-mail to [log in to unmask] , blank subject line
and the command: send usenet/news.answers/mail/country-codes

The up-to-date, pre-release document is also available using a
simple mail-server that I have setup from my account.
Send E-mail to: <[log in to unmask]> with a subject: archive-server-request
and the command: get mail/country-codes  in the body of your message.

The document is also distributed automatically once a month on a
mailing list. To subscribe to that mailing list, send a message to:
[log in to unmask]   with the command in the body of the message:
SUBSCRIBE country-codes <your-name>
where "<your-name>" is your real name.


10. World-Wide-Web (WWW) document

A sister document is available on the World Wide Web. It is based
on this FAQ, and has links to further information for each domain:

          http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/misc/country-codes.html

A set of clickable international colour-coded maps is available at:

          http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/misc/bymap/world.html

Web references for Top-Level information servers for a particular country
should be sent to <[log in to unmask]>. Thanks to all who have helped !


ISO 3166 Codes + Top level domains.

WARNING:

The link to some countries marked as being connected to Internet via
UUCP or FIDO is often an expensive telephone dialup link. The people
in those countries pay dearly for every byte of information sent to
them. It is therefore not advised to send an electronic mail to a
remote node in such a country asking "how's the weather there".
When it comes to money, people take things very seriously, especially
since funds are scarce. It is a matter of net etiquette to keep this
in mind. Junk mail sent to any node that has to pay a lot for its
telephone connection will clearly be dealt with HARSHLY and evasive
action may well be taken against those not respecting this notice.


Code    Country              Conn     Notes         Further information
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
AD   Andorra                FI   *
AE   United Arab Emirates   FI   *
AF   Afghanistan(Islamic St.)
AG   Antigua and Barbuda    FI   *
AI   Anguilla               FI   *
AL   Albania                     *
AM   Armenia                FI   *    Ex-USSR
AN   Netherland Antilles
AO   Angola (Republic of)        *
AQ   Antarctica             FI   *    intermittent    luxor.cc.waikato.ac.nz
AR   Argentina              FI B *
AS   American Samoa
AT   Austria                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
AU   Australia              FI   *                    munnari.oz.au
AW   Aruba                  FI   *
AZ   Azerbaijan             FI B *    Ex-USSR
BA   Bosnia-Herzegovina          *
BB   Barbados               FI   *                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
BD   Bangladesh                  F
BE   Belgium                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
BF   Burkina Faso           FI   *
BG   Bulgaria               FI B *
BH   Bahrain                FI B *
BI   Burundi
BJ   Benin                  FI   *
BM   Bermuda                FI   *
BN   Brunei Darussalam      FI   *
BO   Bolivia                FI   *
BR   Brazil                 FI B *
BS   Bahamas                FI   *
BT   Bhutan
BV   Bouvet Island
BW   Botswana                    *
BY   Belarus                FI   *    Ex-USSR
BZ   Belize                 FI   *
CA   Canada                 FI B *                    relay.cdnnet.ca
CC   Cocos (Keeling) Isl.
CF   Central African Rep.   FI   *
CG   Congo                       *
CH   Switzerland            FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
CI   Ivory Coast            FI   *
CK   Cook Islands
CL   Chile                  FI B *
                                                      dcc.uchile.cl
CM   Cameroon              PFI   *    in .fr domain
CN   China                  FI   *                    ns.cnc.ac.cn

CO   Colombia               FI B *
                                                      cunixd.cc.columbia.edu
CR   Costa Rica             FI B *
CS   Czechoslovakia    ******** not a top-level domain anymore ********
CU   Cuba                        *
CV   Cape Verde
CX   Christmas Island
CY   Cyprus                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
CZ   Czech Republic         FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
DE   Germany                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net

DJ   Djibouti
DK   Denmark                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
DM   Dominica               FI   *
DO   Dominican Republic     FI   *
DZ   Algeria                FI   *
EC   Ecuador                FI B *
EE   Estonia                FI   *
EG   Egypt                  FI B *
EH   Western Sahara
ER   Eritrea                     *
ES   Spain                  FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
ET   Ethiopia                    F
FI   Finland                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
FJ   Fiji                   FI   *
FK   Falkland Isl.(Malvinas)
FM   Micronesia
FO   Faroe Islands          FI   *                    danpost.uni-c.dk
FR   France                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net

FX   France (European Ter.)           ???
GA   Gabon
GB   Great Britain (UK)     FI   *    X.400 & IP      ns1.cs.ucl.ac.uk
GD   Grenada                     P                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
GE   Georgia                FI   *    Ex-USSR         ns.eu.net
GF   Guiana (Fr.)                *
GH   Ghana                  FI   *
GI   Gibraltar
GL   Greenland              FI   *
GM   Gambia                      F
GN   Guinea                PFI   *    dial-IP
GP   Guadeloupe (Fr.)            P
GQ   Equatorial Guinea
GR   Greece                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
GS   South Georgia  and
     South Sandwich Islands
GT   Guatemala              FI   *                    ns.uu.net
GU   Guam (US)              FI   *  in US domains
GW   Guinea Bissau
GY   Guyana                      *
HK   Hong Kong              FI B *                    hp9000.csc.cuhk.hk
HM   Heard & McDonald Isl.
HN   Honduras               FI   *
HR   Croatia                FI   *                    dns.srce.hr
HT   Haiti                       P
HU   Hungary                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net

ID   Indonesia              FI   *
                                                      ns.uu.net
IE   Ireland                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
IL   Israel                 FI B *                    relay.huji.ac.il
IN   India                  FI B *
                                                      sangam.ncst.ernet.in
IO   British Indian O. Terr.
IQ   Iraq
IR   Iran                   FI B *
IS   Iceland                FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
IT   Italy                  FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
JM   Jamaica                FI   *
JO   Jordan                 FI   *
JP   Japan                  FI B *
                                                      jp-gate.wide.ad.jp
KE   Kenya                  FI   *
KG   Kyrgyz Republic        FI   *    Ex-USSR (in .su domain)
KH   Cambodia                    *
KI   Kiribati
KM   Comoros
KN   St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla     P                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
KP   Korea (North)               P
KR   Korea (South)          FI B *                    ns.kaist.ac.kr
KW   Kuwait                 FI   *    No BITNET
KY   Cayman Islands         FI   *
KZ   Kazachstan             FI   *    Ex-USSR
LA   Laos
LB   Lebanon                FI   *
LC   Saint Lucia            FI   *                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
LI   Liechtenstein          FI   *                    t
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
LK   Sri Lanka              FI   *
LR   Liberia
LS   Lesotho                     *
LT   Lithuania              FI   *    Ex-USSR         aun.uninett.no
LU   Luxembourg             FI B *                    t
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
LV   Latvia                 FI   *    Ex-USSR         lapsene.mii.lu.lv
LY   Libya
MA   Morocco                FI   *
MC   Monaco                 FI   *
MD   Moldova                FI   *
MG   Madagascar             FI   *
MH   Marshall Islands
MK   Macedonia (former Yug.)FI   *
ML   Mali                        *
MM   Myanmar
MN   Mongolia               FI   *
MO   Macau                  FI   *                    hkuxb.hku.hk
MP   Northern Mariana Isl.
MQ   Martinique (Fr.)
MR   Mauritania
MS   Montserrat
MT   Malta                  FI   *
MU   Mauritius              FI   *
MV   Maldives
MW   Malawi                      F
MX   Mexico                 FI B *
                                                      mtecv1.mty.itesm.mx
MY   Malaysia               FI B *                    mimos.my
MZ   Mozambique             FI   *
NA   Namibia                FI   *
NC   New Caledonia (Fr.)    FI   *
NE   Niger                       *    in .fr domain
NF   Norfolk Island
NG   Nigeria                     F
NI   Nicaragua              FI   *
NL   Netherlands            FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
NO   Norway                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
NP   Nepal                  FI   *
NR   Nauru
NU   Niue
NZ   New Zealand            FI   *                    truth.waikato.ac.nz
OM   Oman                        *
PA   Panama                 FI B *
PE   Peru                   FI   *
PF   Polynesia (Fr.)        FI   *
PG   Papua New Guinea            *                    munnari.oz.au
PH   Philippines            FI   *                    ns.uu.net
PK   Pakistan               FI   *
PL   Poland                 FI B *                    t
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net

PM   St. Pierre & Miquelon
PN   Pitcairn
PR   Puerto Rico (US)       FI B *                    sun386-gauss.pr
PT   Portugal               FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet gopher.ripe.net
PW   Palau
PY   Paraguay                    *                    ns.uu.net
QA   Qatar
RE   Reunion (Fr.)          FI   *    In .fr domain   inria.inria.fr
RO   Romania                FI B *                    roearn.ici.ac.ro
RU   Russian Federation     FI B *    Ex-USSR
RW   Rwanda                      F    currently cut
SA   Saudi Arabia           FI B *    dial-ip
SB   Solomon Islands
SC   Seychelles                  *
SD   Sudan                       F
SE   Sweden                 FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
SG   Singapore              FI B *                    gopher solomon.technet.sg

SH   St. Helena
SI   Slovenia               FI   *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
SJ   Svalbard & Jan Mayen IsFI   *     in .no domain
SK   Slovakia (Slovak Rep)  FI B *                    gopher gopher.ripe.net
                                                      telnet ns.ripe.net
SL   Sierra Leone                *
SM   San Marino             FI   *
SN   Senegal                FI   *
SO   Somalia
SR   Suriname               FI   *
ST   St. Tome and Principe
SU   Soviet Union           FI B *    Still used.
SV   El Salvador            FI   *
SY   Syria
SZ   Swaziland              FI   *
TC   Turks & Caicos Islands
TD   Chad
TF   French Southern Terr.
TG   Togo                        *
TH   Thailand               FI   *
                                                      chulkn.chula.ac.th
TJ   Tadjikistan                 *    Ex-USSR
TK   Tokelau
TM   Turkmenistan                *    Ex-USSR in .su domain
TN   Tunisia                FI B *
                                                      alyssa.rsinet.tn
TO   Tonga
TP   East Timor
TR   Turkey                 FI B *
                                                      knidos.cc.metu.edu.tr
TT   Trinidad & Tobago      FI   *
TV   Tuvalu
TW   Taiwan                 FI B *
TZ   Tanzania                    F
UA   Ukraine                FI   *
UG   Uganda                 FI   *
UK   United Kingdom         FI B *    ISO 3166 is GB  telnet news.janet.ac.uk
                                                      gopher news.janet.ac.uk
                                    UK Network Enq. <[log in to unmask]>
UM   US Minor outlying Isl.
US   United States          FI   *    see note (4)    venera.isi.edu
UY   Uruguay                FI B *
UZ   Uzbekistan             FI   *    Ex-USSR
VA   Vatican City State     FI   *
VC   St.Vincent & Grenadines     P                    upr1.upr.clu.edu
VE   Venezuela              FI   *                    nisc.jvnc.net
VG   Virgin Islands (British)
VI   Virgin Islands (US)    FI   *
VN   Vietnam                     *
VU   Vanuatu                     *
WF   Wallis & Futuna Islands
WS   Samoa
YE   Yemen
YT   Mayotte
YU   Yugoslavia             FI B *    bitnet is cut
ZA   South Africa           FI   *
ZM   Zambia                 FI   *    intermittent
ZR   Zaire
ZW   Zimbabwe               FI   *

See Note [5] for the next top level domains (rs.internic.net):

ARPA Old style Arpanet           *    alias still works ns.nic.ddn.mil
COM  Commercial             FI   *                    telnet whois.internic.net
EDU  Educational            FI B *                    telnet whois.internic.net
GOV  Government             FI   *                    telnet whois.internic.net
INT  International field    FI   *                    ns1.cs.ucl.ac.uk
MIL  US Military            FI   *                    ns.nic.ddn.mil
NATO Nato field                  *    soon to be deleted ???
NET  Network                FI   *                    telnet whois.internic.net
ORG  Non-Profit OrganizationFI   *                    telnet whois.internic.net

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
DISCLAIMER: while every effort is made to provide accurate information,
this list is not guaranteed to be accurate. This document is in NO WAY
an official document. The information given should not be used as a basis
for routing tables but only as general end-user information. This is a
voluntary effort. I would appreciate greatly if errors/omissions could
be pointed out to me and they would be corrected in the next release.
The information included in this document implies no view whatsoever
regarding questions of sovereignty or the status of any place listed.
Affiliation to Imperial College is given for identification purposes only.


--
Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond, Digital Comms. Section, Elec. Eng. Department
 Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2BT, UK
<[log in to unmask]>    Mobile (GMT): +44 (0)956 84 111 3    <[log in to unmask]>
--------------------------------( cut here )--------------------------------


Hope this helps,

Patrick.
Patrick O'Beirne B.Sc. M.A. MICS, Systems Consultant, Author, Lecturer
Trainer and Developer in Clipper       TickIT trained ISO 9000 Auditor
Compuserve: 100023,1304  WWWeb: http://www.iol.ie/~pobeirne/index.html
Systems Modelling Ltd, Gorey, Co. Wexford, IRELAND. VAT NO. IE4625958Q

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