>Arthur is mentioned long before Geoffrey of Monmouth, try the Historia
>Brittonum, or the Welsh Annals, or Culwych and Olwen, or (as you say) the
>Gododdin, or other early Welsh poetry, his legend was also in Brittany
>before the writings of Geoffrey of Monmouth, making it difficult for
>Lancelot to be the Breton Arthur, the source for this is the article by
>Oliver Padel in, Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies, 1995 on Arthur.
>The early material for Arthur cannot then be compared to that of
>Lancelot. Lancelot doesn't even get a mention in Geoffrey of Monmouth,
>the greatest of all concocters of 'fiction' and seive of things Britonnic.
>Mark Handley, Trinity Hall Cambridge.
I beg to disagree. As I have said before, Lancelot of the Lake is Lug
Lamhcalad, i.e. Lug of the Hard-hand. Lug is found not only in the British
Isles, but in Gaul, where there are several ancient cities named after him
(e.g. Lugdunum) and even an entire province (Lugdunensis). If you will
compare the account of Arthur's campaign against Lucius Hiberus
(Lugios/Lugh + Eberus/Ebernus, Hiberno-Latin forms of hibernus, "Irishman")
with the later story of Arthur's campaign against Lancelot in Gaul, you
will find numerous rather convincing parallels. In both stories, Arthur
goes to the Continent to battle Lug/Lucius and must return to battle
Modred/Mordred. You will also find that Geoffrey singles out Gawain for a
special antagonism toward Lucius, just as the later romances (i.e. Malory)
single out Gawain for his antagonism toward Lancelot. Other details are
noteworthy, e.g. Lucius's demanding Arthur show up in Rome in the middle of
August and his own embarking on the march toward Britain on the first of
August. This was the time of Lugnasad, Lug's annual festival. Oh, yes,
much has been made of Geoffrey Ashe's theory in which Lucius is said to be
a corruption of Lucerius, itself a corruption of Glycerius, a western Roman
emperor. But there is little doubt that even if Lucius did start out as
Glycerius, he was very soon mythologized into Lug the Irishman.