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CELTIC-L  July 1995

CELTIC-L July 1995

Subject:

the word Celt.

From:

Jeanne Cruden <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

CELTIC-L - The Celtic Culture List.

Date:

Sun, 2 Jul 1995 22:02:59 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (127 lines)

Here's the result of a search in the OED.
 
2 matches
 
Match 1
Celt[1] (selt), (kelt). Also Kelt (kelt). [a. Fr. Celte, ad. L. Celta, sing. of
Celtae, in Gr. Kepsilon-lambda-tau-omicron-iota-.  (A later Gr.
Kepsilon-lambda-tau-alpha-iota-, in Strabo, etc., was probably from L.
Celtae.)  For conjectures as to a possible derivation, see Rhys, Celtic
Britain (1884) 2.]
  1 Hist.  Applied to the ancient peoples of Western Europe, called by the
Greeks Kepsilon-lambda-tau-omicron-iota-, Kepsilon-lambda-tau-alpha-iota-, and
by the Romans Celtae.
  The Kepsilon-lambda-tau-omicron-iota- of the Greeks, also called
Galpha-lambda-alpha-tau-alpha-iota-, Galatae, appear to have been the Gauls
and their (continental) kin as a whole; by Caesar the name Celtae was
restricted to the people of middle Gaul (Gallia Celtica), but most other Roman
writers used it of all the Galli or Gauls, including the peoples in Spain and
Upper Italy believed to be of the same language and race; the ancients
apparently never extended the name to the Britons.
  1607 TOPSELL Four-f. Beasts 251 The Indians were wont to use no bridles, like
the Graecians and Celts. 1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Celt, one born in Gaul. 1782
WARTON Hist. Kiddington 67 (T.) This obstinate war between the insular Britons
and the continental Celts. 1839 THIRLWALL Greece VIII. 411 The Celts advanced
 
  2 A general name applied in modern times to peoples speaking languages akin
to those of the ancient Galli, including the Bretons in France, the Cornish,
Welsh, Irish, Manx, and Gaelic of the British Isles.
  This modern use began in French, and in reference to the language and people
of Brittany, as the presumed representatives of the ancient Gauls: with the
recognition of linguistic affinities it was extended to the Cornish and Welsh,
and so to the Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic.  CELTIC has thus become a name
for one of the great branches of the Aryan family of languages (see CELTIC);
and the name Celt has come to be applied to any one who speaks (or is
descended from those who spoke) any Celtic language.  But it is not certain
that these constitute one race ethnologically; it is generally held that they
represent at least two `races', markedly differing in physical
characteristics.  Popular notions, however, associate `race' with language,
and it is common to speak of the `Celts' and `Celtic race' as an ethnological
unity having certain supposed physical and moral characteristics, especially
as distinguished from `Saxon' or `Teuton'.
  1703 PEZRON (title), Antiquite de la Nation et de la langue des Celtes. 1706
JONES (tr. of Pezron), Antiquities of Nations, more particularly of the Celtae
or Gauls, taken to be originally the same people as our ancient Britains. 1757
TINDAL tr. Rapin's Hist. Eng. Introd. 7 Great Britain was peopled by the
 
[Scythians] were the ancestors of the Celts, the same religion might be in
Asia Minor and Skye. 1842 PRICHARD Nat. Hist. Man 185 This race, who had
probably been expelled by the Italian nations and the Celts from Italy and
Gaul. 1851 D. WILSON Preh. Ann. (1863) II. IV. i. 182 The Celts of Britain are
apparently the oldest among the Aryan races. 1856 EMERSON Eng. Traits, Race
Wks. (Bohn) II. 21 If that be true..that Celts love unity of power, and Saxons
the representative principle.
  Hence 'Celtified ppl. a. (nonce-wd.), made Celtic in fashion or garb.
'Celtism, the distinctive character of the Celt.  'Celtist, one who studies
the Celtic languages.  Celti'zation, a making Celtic; conversion to being
Celtic.
  1837 LOCKHART Scott xx. 459 Sir Walter's Celtified pageantry. 1866 M. ARNOLD
in Cornh. Mag. Mar. 289 A more attentive and impartial study of Celtism than
it has yet ever received from us. 1866 M. ARNOLD in Cornh. Mag. May 547
Celtism is..everywhere manifest still in the French nation. 1866 M. ARNOLD in
Cornh. Mag. Mar. 289 This is a very different matter from the political and
social Celtization of which certain enthusiasts dream. 1885 Athenaeum 17 Jan.
86/1 The name of a French Celtist.
 
Match 2
 
`stone-chisel, sculptor's chisel'.
  The received or Clementine text of the Vulgate has in Job xix. 24 Stylo
ferreo, et plumbi lamina, vel celte sculpantur in silice; but, though this is
the reading of some MSS., the Codex Amiatinus and others read certe `surely'.
Some hold certe to be the original reading (representing l(?)d of the Heb.,
`for ever' of the Eng., which is not expressed by the LXX), and take celte as
an erroneous alteration of some kind; others think celte a genuine word, and
suppose that it was originally a marginal gloss on stylo, which was
erroneously taken into the text, and subsequently altered to certe by some one
to whom it was perhaps unfamiliar.  But the independent evidence for a word
celtes or celte is slender.  The `vetus inscriptio Romae', cited by Du Cange,
is a late forgery, and celte in it is app. from the Vulgate.  One of the
miscellaneous undated glosses in the Glossarium C. Labbaei (Stephens'
Thesaurus) is `Glambda-upsilon-phi-epsilon-iota-omicron-nu- Celte', but this
is prob. later than the Vulgate variant reading, and may be founded on it.
Later also than the Vulgate is the gloss on Sidonius Epist. vii. 3 (Anecd.
Oxon., Class Ser. I. V. p. xi. and 50) `Hoc caelum, ut hoc celte, celtis,
instrumentum est quo caelatur,' which shows the ordinary explanation of the
word in the Middle Ages.  Celtes occurs however in two charters given in
Lacomblet Urkundenbuch fur die Geschichte des Niederrheins, II. 331 (anno
 
celtes seu fracmina lapidum per viam eandem', and II. 382 (anno 1319) `quod
nulli frangentes lapides seu alii quicumque proicient seu mittent celtes seu
alia fragmenta in ipsam foveam'.  Here the meaning is `pieces or fragments, ?
chips', of stone; the relation of this to the Vulgate word is uncertain.  In
Welsh, maen cellt, with the assumed meaning `flint stone', occurs in the
Triads of Wisdom (16-17th c.), in Myv. Archit. III. 246; and cellt is also
said to be (or to have been) known in Breconshire, in the sense of `shell' of
a nut, etc.; but the status of the word is altogether obscure, and its alleged
senses help the question little.  In any case, celtes, whatever its orgin and
character, was assumed, on the authority of the Vulgate, to be a genuine word;
and, as such, the term was admitted into the technical vocabulary of
Archaeology, about 1700.  `In Beger's Thesaurus Brandenburgicus 1696 a bronze
celt adapted for insertion in its haft is described under the name of celtes'
(Ll. Jewitt Half-hours among Eng. Antiq. 1877, p. 32).  Apparently the general
adoption of the word by antiquaries was influenced by a fancied etymological
connexion with CELT[1]: thus the Grand Dict. of Larousse explains it as `sorte
de hache gauloise en bronze'.]
  An implement with chisel-shaped edge, of bronze or stone (but sometimes of
iron), found among the remains of prehistoric man.  It appears to have served
for a variety of purposes, as a hoe, chisel, or axe, and perhaps as a weapon
 
others have sockets to receive a handle, and one, or two, ear-like ansae or
loops.
  1715 A. PENNECUIK Descr. Tweeddale 203 note (Jam.), Supposed to be the
ancient weapon called the stone celt. 1732-69 DE FOE Tour Gt. Brit. I. 309 In
the great long Barrow, farthest North from Stone-henge..was found one of those
Brass Instruments called Celts. 1796 PEARSON in Phil. Trans. LXXXVI. 428 Most
probably celts were originally chopping tools. 1830 LYELL Princ. Geol. (1875)
I. I. i. 3 The..stone hatchets, called Celts, found in our peat bogs. 1851 D.
WILSON Preh. Ann. (1863) I. II. iv. 383 The Bronze celt..is found in various
sizes and degrees of ornament. 1866 LAING Preh. Rem. Caithn. 40 The hammers or
celts are almost all natural stones from the beach. 1878 W. H. DALL Later
Preh. Man 8 A skeleton interred in the earth, together with the remains of a
small iron celt.
  b Comb., as celt-maker.
  1865 LUBBOCK Preh. Times 17 The celt-makers never cast their axes as we do
ours, with a transverse hole, through which the handle might pass.
.

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