Did any of you have this material still which Jim refers to?
If so, perhaps you could forward it to MEDTEXTL@UIUCVMD, or to Jim himself -
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From: James Marchand <[log in to unmask]>
To: Melcir Richmond <[log in to unmask]>
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I offer you this bibliography in honor of Melcir and the new book. It is
a scan of an old (about 1965 vintage) bibliography, and needs to be
brought up to date, I hope by medtextlers. Over on Celtic-l, they had a
fine bibliography of tools for learning Modern Welsh, with notes,
addresses, etc. Maybe Melcir could dig it up and post it over to us. If
not, I am sure I kept it somewhere. Since this is an OCR (or ICR) scan,
and I have had no time to clean it up, it probably has some typos -- they
are, of course, not mine, but the machine's. The Marchand fingers are
unacquainted with tyypoes.
Since this is old and out of date, let me add a few notes, some even older
and more out of date -- senectus mater est garrulitatis (remember our rule
about dog Latin). A very expensive, but good book I bought at a remainder
sale for $1 (senectus mater est jactationis) is: A Guide to Irish Bibliographic-
al Material, ed. Alan R. Eager, 2d ed. (London: The Library Association, 1980).
In the original of this, I mentioned as the best source of Celtic books Hodges,
Figgis & Co. / 6 Dawson Street / Dublin and Patrick O'Brian of Toronto. I
don't know whether either of these is still in business. Perhaps our friends
on Celtic-l can tell us where to go for books. If you can come by a catalogue
from Hodges and Figgis, clasp it to your bosom. They are hard bound and
function well as bibliographies. A more recent source and good is Ford &
Bailie, Publishers / P.O. Box 2156 / Van Nuys, CA 91404-2156, Phone (818)
780-7607, FAX (818) 997-1676. AMS Press, Inc. / 56 East 13th Street / New
York, NY 10003 used to reprint Celtic books. Their 1980 catalogue was splendid,
but, as I said, I haven't been keeping up. You ought to join The Celtic Studies
Association of North America if you live on this side of the Atlantic or
Pacific and above Central America (rather restrictive, don't you think?). My
last newsletter, Bealtaine, 1991, says write to Edgar Slotkin, English, Uni-
versity of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0069.
Celtic Languages and Literatures - Bibliographical Notes
There is unfortunately no good general survey of recent vintage. The
student should first consult: H. Zimmer, K. Meyer, L. Chr. Stern, "Die
keltischen Literaturen und Sprachen," in Hinneberg's Die Kultur der
Gegenwart, I.IX.1 bound together usually in one volume with Romance
studies, entitled: Die romanischen Literaturen und Sprachen mit
Einschluss des Keltischen.
There is a good survey of the whole field, unfortunately in Breton:
Notennou diwar-benn ar Gelted kez o istor hag o sevenadur, dastumet hag
urziet gant Meven Mordiern ha lakaat e brezonek gant Abherve. Trede
mouladur. Brest, 1944. There is much current bibliography in the form of
For survey of the field ca. 1935 to ca. 1950: J. Pokorny,
Keltologie (Bound together with Vittore Pisani's Allgemeine und
vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft - Indogermanistik to form pp. 95-199 of
Wissenschaftliche Forschungsberichte, Band 2 (Bern, 1952).
1. The best general survey, though small, is: G. Dottin, Les
litteratures celtiques (Paris: Collection Payot, 1924). See also
Zimmer, et al. above.
2. Still the standnrd uork, though in part superseded and to be used
H. d'Arbois de Jubainvilla, Cours da litterature celtique, 12
1. Holger Pedersen, Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen
Sprachen 2 vols. Goettingen, 1909-13.
2. Henry Lewis & Holger Pedersen, Concise Comparative Celtic
Grammar, Goettingen, 1937; brings Pedersen up to date. Its
saction on Welsh is the best comparative treatment of that
3. A truncatad and quite brief treatment is in the course of
publication by A. Maniet in the Journal Orbis (cf. vol VI
1957Ù 398-409; VII 1958Ù 141-158).
1. A. Grenier, Les Gaulois, Paris, 1945 the stnndard work, treats
language, culture, history, etc.
2. G. Dottin, Manuel pour servir a l'etude de l'antiquite
celtique, 2d ed. (Paris, 1915).
3. d'Arbois de Jubainvilla, vol. XII: "Principaux auteurs de
l'antiquite a consulter sur l'histoira des celtes depuis les
temps les plus anciens jusqu'au regne de Theodore Ier"
4. W. Dinan, Monumenta historica Celtica, Notices of the Celts in
the writings of the Graak and Latin authors from tha 10th cent
BC to the 5th cant, arranged chronologically with translations.
Vol. I (London, 1911), ends with Poseidonius.
5. J. Whatmough, "Keltika, Being Prolegomena to a Study of the
Dialects of Ancient Gaul, Harvard Studies in Classical
Philology 55 (1944) 5.1-85.
6. G. Dottin, La langue gauloise, Paris, 1924 contains
inscriptions, grammar, interpretations, etc.
Language: Most of our manuscripts are either written in or have been
modified by Middle Irish. This means that Middle Irish is the most
important of the languages to be learned. For Old Irish, the best
grammar is R. Thurneysen, Handbuch des Altirischen, 2 vols., Heidelberg,
1909 second volume is a readerÙ; this now is available in an English
translation, with corrections and additions: D. A. Binchy & Osborn
Bergin, transl., A Grammar of Old Irish, Dublin, 1961 the reader also
appears in translationÙ. For introduction into OIr., J. Pokorny's A
Historical Reader of Old Irish is good. Also excellent for an
introduction is Gerard Murphy's Early Irish Lyrics, Oxford, 1956
(contains texts, translation, notesÙ. For Middle Irish, the standard
grammar is G. Dottin, Manuel de l'irlandais moyen, 2 vols, Paris, 1913
excellent in every way; a translation has been prepared by James W.
MarchandÙ, which may be used in connection with Vernam Hull, Exile of the
Sons of Uisliu, MLA Publications, 1949 Text, translation, copious
notesÙ. Modern Irish is useful also as an introduction and must at any
rate be learned by the advanced student. Here the standard texts are the
Christian Brothers, An Irish Grammar and Aids to Irish Composition. An
inexpensive set of Records is available from SPOL, 15 Ha,ilton Street,
Dublin (cf. p. 167 of Lochlann. A review of Celtic Studies, vol, II
Literature: There is no full and complete treatment of Early Irish
literature, though most histories of Irish Literature do treat the
medieval period, since manuscript tradition reaches here, as in Iceland,
into the 19th century. It is very difficult to find lists of the corpus.
Mario Esposito worked for years on a list of Irish Latin writers, and
arrived at a definitive list in "A Bibliography of the Latin Writers of
Medieval Ireland," Studies II (Dec., 1913) 495-521. The epic literature
of Ireland is exhaustively treated by H. d'Arbois de Jubainville, Essai
d1un catalogue de la litterature epique de l'Irlande precede d'une etude
sur les manuscrits en langue irlandaise conserves dans les Iles
Brittaniqes et sur le continent, Paris, 1883 a work of great erudition,
using only three cycles and no miscellaneous classification, to be used
only with the list of addenda mentioned in Kenney, p. 92, cf. G. Dottin,
"Supplement a l'Essai d'un catalogue de la litterature epque de
l'Irlande," RC VIII (1912) 1-40Ù. The standard history of OIr. literature
is still Eleanor Hull, A Text Book of Irish Literature, 2 vols., Dublin,
19O8. A valuable survey is also found in Douglas Hyde, A Literary
History of Ireland, London (The Library of Literary History), 1910. Of
the more modern surveys those by Myles Dillon are to be recommended:
Early Irish Literature, U. of Chicago, 1948, and The Cycles of the Kings,
1946. Thurneysen's masterful Die irische Helden und Koenigssage,
Heidelberg, 1921, has not lost its usefulness. There are a large number
of translations of the literature available, cf. Farrar and Evans and
Ferguson. The publications of the Irish Texts Society contain a good
text, an introduction, notes and can be recommended as the Loeb Classics
of the Irish world. Especially good, for example, is the edition of
Keating's History of Ireland. See later under Chronicles and Early
History. Irish literature is not lacking in more popular treatments, and
we have recently seen the appearance of a series: Irish Life and Culture,
designed to acquaint a broad public with Ireland. They contain the
following, quite competent works of interest to us; III. Irish Folk Music
and Song, by Donal O'Sulivan), VIII Early Irish Society, by Myles Dillon;
Saga and Myth in Ancient Ireland, by Gerard Murphy; XI, The Ossianic Lore
and Romantic Tales of Medieval Ireland, by Gerard Murphy; VI, Irish
Classical Poetry, by Eleanor Knott.
3. Folklore: Since much of Early Irish poetry can be considered to be
folklore, studies in Irish folklore are of importance to us. The
standard book is Sean O'Suillleabhain, Handbook of Irish Folklore,
Dublin, 1942. For checking types and comparison to other folklores, we
have: T. P. Cross, Motif-Index Early Irish Literature (Indiana U.
Publications, Folklore Series No, 7), 1952. An excellent survey, which
includes much of Irish folklore is Stith Thompson's, The Folktale, New
York, 1951. The collections and Journal of the Irish Folksong Society
offer splendid works on the Irish folk-song. Bunting's Ancient Irish
Music, 1796, is still useful see the list of his collection: O'Sullivan,
Bunting Collection of Irish Folk Music, 6 parts (Irish Folksong Society),
1932-39 in six vols. The study of Irish mythology has received a boost
recently in the work of F. O'Rahilly, Early Irish History and Mythology,
Dublin, 1946, and the controversies surrounding it. The student should
be careful to compare and control the work of the Irish mythologists with
general works in mythology and religion. Cf. the works of M.-L.
Sjoestedt, Dieux et heros des Celtes, Paris, 1940 engl. transl. London,
1948Ù and J. Vendrycs, "La religion des Celtes," in Les religions de
l'Europe ancienne, vol, 2, pt. III, pp. 240-320.
4. History. Early Chronicles & History, The best work on the sources of
Irish history is: J. F. Kenney, The Sources for the Early History of
Ireland, Vol, I (Ecclesiastical) Columbia Records of Civilization
Series, Il), 1929. The standard history of Ireland is that of E. Curtis,
History of Ireland, Dublin, 1945; cf, also his History of Medieval
Ireland, 2d ed,, 1936. P. W. Joyce, A Social History of Ancient Ireland,
2 vols., London, 1903 is useful and readable. All of these should be
used, if possible, with reference to Eugene O'Curry, On the Manners and
Customs of the Ancient Irish, 3 vols,, ed. W. K. Sullivan, London, 1873.
Cf. also L. Gougaud, Les Chretientes celtiques, Paris, 1911. A small
book especially valuable for its plates is: M. and L. de Paor, Early
Christian Ireland (NY:Praeger, 1958). Since Ireland had a good
annalistic tradition and literary criticism in the middle ages, the
student should familiarize himself with the varous annals, etc, These are
available in translation and editions: The Annals of the Four Masters (a
17th century compilation), ed., transl., with copious notes by John
O'Donovan, Dublin, 1851 (7 vols). "The Annals of Tigernach (d. 1088),"
ed. by Whitley Stokes, RC 16-18 (1895-97) passim; Chronicum Scotorum,
Rolls Series, 46, 1866; Geoffrey Keating (1633), Foras Feasa ar Eirenn
(Elements of the History of Ireland), available in translation in the
Irish Texts Scciety, vols, 4, 8, 9.. + supplement, is the most important
early source, containing many of our stories in their only known form.
The bibliography of Irish history is kept up to date in Irish History
Studies, "Writings on Irish History", which is also a treasure-trove for
literary and cultural studies.
5. Bibliography; Irish is well provided with bibliographies: R. I.
Best, Bibliography of Irish Philoloey and of Printed Irish Literature,
Dublin, 1913 and 1942. This is practically complete through 1941, and is
to be recommended for any problem. Cf, also the bibliography in Kenney,
pp. 91-109. On Ireland's connection with the rest of rope and its
literature, see: Robin Flower, Ireland and Medieval Europe, 1927 and
James Carney, Studies in Irish Literature & History, Dublin, 1955. Cf.
also W. P. Bonser, An Anglo-Saxon and Celtic Bibliography, 2 vols,, 1957,
which is of little use to students of literature.
I. Language: The best grammar (comparative) of Welsh is still that
found in Lewis-Pedersen (under Celtic, above). Also useful for
comparative purposes is: Kenneth Jackson, Language and History in Early
Britain, Harvard, 1953, though much of it is speculative, The standard
work is J. Morris Jones, Welsh Grammar; historical and comparative,
Oxford, 1913, but it is quite weak. There is a hastily composed
Introduction to Early Nelsh, by Strachan, 1909, A good reader, with notes
unfortunately in Welsh, is: Ifor Williams, Pedeir Keinc y Mabinogi,
Cardiff, 1930. There are good parallel text translations; cf. Brut y
Brenhinedd (History of the Kings of Britain), ed. and transl. by J. J.
Parry (Med. Aced.), 1936,
2. Literature: We are fortunate in that the best history of Welsh
literature has been translated recently into English: Th. Parry, History
of Welsh Literature transl, by H. I. Bell, Oxford, 1955. An excellent
short survey is that by W. J. Gruffydd in the 14th ed. of the
Encyclopedia Britannica. Usable, but weak, is Gwyn Williams, An
Introduction to Welsh Poetry, London, 1953. Among the translations, that
of the Mabinogion by Gwyn Jones and Thomas Jones (Everyman, No, 97), 1949
3. History, etc, The standard history is: J. E. Lloyd, A History of
Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, 3 ed,, 2 vols.,
1939. There is a bibliography for Welsh history: A Bibliography of the
History of Wales, T. Jenkins & Wm. Rees, Cardiff, 1931; check also for
general bibliography: Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies.
4. Arthurian materials, Arthurian literature is inextricably
connected to Welsh literature, though, in truth, it has little to do with
it, most of Welsh Arthurian, as Loomis has remarked, being French in
origin. Arthurian bibliography is best handled in:
a. James Douglas Bruce, The Evolution of Arthurian Romance from the
Beginnings down to the Year 1300, 2 vols., 1923; 2nd ed., 1928 (in
Hesperia, Ergaenzungsreihe 8, 9, with additions) this is the standard
introduction + bibl.Ù.
b. John Jay Parry (partly in conjunction with M. Schlauch), A
Bibliography of Critical Arthurian Literature for the Years 1922-29, MLA,
1931; For the Years 1930-35, 1936 a continuation of BruceÙ.
c. ________ A Bibliography of Critical Arthurian Literature for the Years
1936-39, Modern Language Quarterly 1 (1940) 129-74 Continued annually in
the June issueÙ
e. Jean Frappier, Robert W. Ackerman, et al,, Bulletin bibliographique de
la Societe arthurienne, Paris 1- (1949-). now the standard
f. R. S. Loomis, ed,, Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, A
Collaborative History, Oxford, 1959 (-an excellent ForschungsberichtÙ.
Other books of importance in the study of Arthurian matter are: E. Faral,
La legende arthurienne, 3 vols., Paris, 1911-1929 (contains edition of
Geoffrey's Historia and Vita Merlini + Nennius with an important
introduction); Tatlock, The Legendary History of Britain, Berkeley, 1950;
R. S. Loomis, Celtic Myth and Arthurian Romance.
Note: The study of Modern Welsh is also useful. The following are
probably the best texts for this purpose: J. Morris-Jones, An Elementary
Welsh Grammar, Oxford, 1922; to be supplemented by his: Welsh Syntax,
1931. Vinay and Thomas, The Basis and Essentials of Welsh, London, 1947
and Teach Yourself Welsh are also useful.