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CELTIC-L  May 2013

CELTIC-L May 2013

Subject:

Re: Beltaine 1

From:

Vyvyan ogma wyverne <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

CELTIC-L - The Celtic Culture List.

Date:

Tue, 14 May 2013 12:17:42 +0930

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (180 lines)

wow. this beautiful book is available for free on google books. i just
googled “Fockleyr Manninagh as Baarlagh” by John Kelly, Archibald
Cregeen, John Ivon Mosley,

On 5/14/13, Bernard Morgan <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
> Question: How much of the material below, from a Manx Dictionary, can I rely
> on without regard to external sources? i.e. how much does it prove by itself
> in regard to Baal and his associated customs? Is it more than just hear say?
>
>
>
> From “Fockleyr Manninagh as Baarlagh” by John Kelly, Archibald Cregeen, John
> Ivon Mosley, 1866, p.13-16
>
> “BAAL, S. Baal, Apollo, the Sun. Baal, Bcel, Bel, or Bol, a king of the
> Assyrians, son of Nimrod, and father of Ninus, was the first who applied
> himself to the study of astronomy, and being deified by his
> subjects, was the first Apotheosis, and hence called Baal, Dominus and Baal
> Sauin, Dominus cadi. Diod. Sic. l, 3. Thus the Assyrian or Phenician Baal,
> and the Apollo of the Greeks appear to be the same, and to mean the Sun; for
> the word Grian, the Celtic for Sun, is the Grynoeus Apollo: and as the
> different Planets were held by. the Greeks and Romans, according to Cicero,
> to be the gods whose names they bear, so the Sun under the different
> appellations abovementioned, was the God of the Assyrians, Phenicians,
> Samaritans, and Carthaginians, as well as of the Irish, Erse, Manks, and all
> the Celtic Tribes. Among the Greeks and Romans, however, Apollo was only a
> secondary deity; among the Celts Baal or the Sun was the great and perhaps
> their only God; while the Moon, the Queen of Heaven, under the name of
> Ashtaroth, or Astarte, was their only Goddess. Judg. x. 6. (Ir. Bal, Bel,
> Beel, Beal; lat. Apollo.
>
> BAAL-SAUIN, S. the name of Baal; and signifies Lord of Heaven or the Sun.
> The first day of November was dedicated to his worship, and is called
> Laa-Souiney, and the Season or Month yn Tauyn; because anciently the first
> day of November was the first day of the year: and the Mummers on the eve of
> All-Saints' Day still begin their petition with these remarkable words, "
> To-night is New Year's night. Og-u-naa. The Moon shines fair and bright.
> Tro-la-la." On this night, in the words of Jeremiah, "the women knead their
> dough to make cakes to the Queen of Heaven," which is the Moon alluded to in
> the Mummer's petition, called in Scripture, Ashtaroth: "They served Baalim
> and Ashtaroth." Much ceremony is observed in making this cake, which is
> sacred to love, (for the Syrian Astarte is supposed to be the Greek Venus,)
> and is called the " soddag valloo" or dumb cake. Every woman is obliged to
> assist in mixing the ingredients, kneading the dough and baking the cake on
> glowing embers; and when sufficiently baked they divide it, eat it up, and
> retire to their beds backwards without speaking a word, from which silence
> the cake derives its name, and in the course of the night expect to see the
> images of the men who are destined to be their husbands. This eve is called
> "oie houiney."
>
> BAALTINN, pronounced BOLTINN, the name of a district in the Parish of Kirk
> Braddan. It consists of a projection of the mountain Carraghan, the sides
> whereof are inclosed by two rivers, which meet at a place called the Aah-mod
> or Dogs'-ford. [2. Qu, now Ballatnoddey? ED.] This river is afterwards
> called White river, and falls into another called the Black river; below the
> junction of which is the town of Douglass, deriving its name from the union
> of the Doo (black) and the Glass (grey) rivers. In the centre of Baaltinn is
> a small village called Aal-caer or Baal's town. Adjoining to Aal-caer are
> the ruins of an old Temple, called Kil Amman (Cella Ammonis). [About 18 x 12
> feet. On the site of these ruins the Chapel of St. Luke was built, A.D.
> 1836. ED.] Near to this was an ancient Tynwald or Tinn-Vaal, i.e., the altar
> or fire of Baal, where all new Laws were promulged, and the seats of the 24
> Keys or Parliament of the Island arc still pointed out. Here was a pillar
> with an inscription, as I have been often told, but it was carried off and
> broken to mend a neighbouring stone wall. This Tinn Vaal was coeval with
> another on Croncurley, in the north side of the Island; aa at that time the
> Island was under two Governments, and the distinctions of North-side and
> South-side still remain. But when Man came to be under one Government, the
> present Tinn Vaal, or Tennual, or Tynwald, as being more central, was
> erected, and the Chapel (dedicated to St. John the Baptist, on whose
> festival the Tinn-Vaal is annually held), was appropriated to the religious
> services which the meetings at Tinn-vaal might require. A fair was, however,
> held at the old Tinn-Vaal in Baal-tinn, until lately. There is an opinion in
> this part of the country that the church commonly called Kil Ammon should be
> named Kil Abban, or the Abbott's Church; and that it was either built, at
> the introduction of Christianity into the Island, on the ruins of Baal's
> temple, or that the Pagan Kil Ammon was then converted into the Christian
> Kil Abban. It is certain, however, that at a very early period the village
> of Aalcaer received the name of Balla Chreest, Christ's town; but has not
> retained it in use, tho' it is so called hi the Records. The high-road to
> Kil Ammon is called the Paad Jiarg (red road). About a mile to the south of
> this Tinn Vaal is Balla-vriw, the Judge's Town, which, as well as part of
> Aalcaer, is the property of the family of Kelly, [the R«v. Doctor's
> family.—Ed.'] who most probably were Judges or Druids of that religious and
> judicial institution.The adjoining town or balla is called Baal-ny-moddey,
> the town of Dogs; and higher up the valley another town is called A ah
> Whuallian or the whelp's ford. I mention these names, as the modern
> believers in the God Belus are of opinion that these dogs in their
> respective stations were the guards of the sacred Tinn-vaal, Baal-tinn, or
> fire of Baal. On St. Stephen's day the inhabitants of this district assemble
> to hunt the little Wren, which, when caught and killed, they fasten to the
> top of a long pole and cany about in procession, with- drums beating, and
> colours flying, and distribute for money the feathers of the bird, which are
> esteemed by the purchasers to be a charm against all evils for the ensuing
> year. So far is common with the practice of other parts of the Island; but
> in Baaltinn the body of the naked Wren is deposited with much solemnity in
> Kil Ammon, and the evening concludes with a variety of games on the open
> ground which adjoins. While some think this to be an emblem of the change
> from human sacrifices to those of beasts in the offerings of Baal, others
> think, with apparently more reason, that it is a superstitious memorial of
> the death of the saint. It may be right in this place to explain the reason
> why Baal-tinn and Tinn Vaal are supposed to be the same word, and to mean
> the same thing. Bealtuinne is of Irish origin, and Tinn-vaal of Manks, as
> being peculiar to the Isle of Man ; for whenever or generally when two
> substantives are put in apposition, the Irish place that word first, which
> the Manks put last, as Irish ailtcheangal is in Manks kiangley-olt,
> buidhemhios is mee-vuigh, July, ihongphort, a harbour,purt-lhong or
> ihuingys. Ir. saix-vheurla, baarl-sausinagh. M'Cuirtin also, author of the
> Irish Dictionary explains Bealtuinne by Teinne Bheil, and by Teinne
> Bheluis.- But should Tinn veal and Baal tinn be the same, and both signify
> Baal's altar and fire, and the court where new laws were promulged, there
> will be a difficulty in accounting for the Icelandic, "Althing, or common
> court of justice, which is kept every year on the 8th of July, at
> Thing-Valla." * For though the Icelandic names and their uses resemble those
> of the Celtic; yet we cannot think them of Celtic origin. Here, then, is a
> field of curious inquiry for the learned antiquarian. (Ir. Bealtuinne; lat.
> Appollinis ignis, for teinn or teinney fire, is eign or eigney without the
> t, which is added because of the word beginning with a vowel; therefore
> ignis is of the same Celtic origin.
>
> Baaltinn (laa), s. May-day or the day of Baal's fire, or of the Sun, from
> tinn celestial fire, and Baal the god Baal, or the Sun. On this day [the eve
> of this day.—Ed.] the inhabitants kindle fires on the summits of the highest
> hills, in continuation of the practice of the Druids, who made the cattle,
> and probably "the children, to pass through the fire," using certain
> ceremonies to expiate the sins of the people ; but the modern practice is,
> for each balla or town to kindle a fire, so that the wind may drive the
> smoke over their com fields, cattle and habitations. Which custom,
> independent of the religious use, might have a temporal benefit also in
> view, by killing the insects which infest the trees and com at that season.
> It is also the usage to put out the culinary fires on that day, and to
> rekindle them with some of the sacred fire. On this day, likewise, the young
> people of different districts form themselves into two parties, called the
> Summer and the Winter (Sourey as Geurey), and having appointed a place of
> meeting, a mock engagement takes place, when the winter party gradually
> recedes before the summer, and at last quits the field. There is an
> appropriate song, the burden of which is, Hug eh my fainey; sourey lhien,
> &c. [" He gave my ring; summer with us," &c. I can make no sense of
> this.—Ed.] On this day, and also on Laa Souney (the first of November),
> malefactors were punished with death by fire, and human sacrifices were
> offered to Baal; which, however, both at Carthage and in Ireland, according
> to the ancient historians, were laid aside, and the sacrifice of beasts
> substituted in their stead. Val. Gr. 124. On May-eve, the inhabitants dress
> their houses with flowers, and before every door a considerable space is
> strewed with primroses; and crosses are made of mountain-ash (caorin), which
> are fastened to their cattle and worn by themselves as preservatives against
> witchcraft. On this eve also the damsel places a snail between two pewter
> dishes, and expects to find next morning the name of her future husband in
> visible characters on the dish; but the success of this depends on her
> watching until midnight, and having first purified her hands and face by
> washing them in the dew of wheat.
>
> Baalan, a. the plant ------- (?) a fillet, a chaplet.j This plant is
> gathered on Midsummer-eve, and made into chaplets, or circles, which are
> worn on the head of man and beast, to preserve them against witchcraft and
> evil. The word is literally Baal's chaplet, from ‘an’ the circle or ring,
> and Baal of Baal; in commemoration of Baal or the Sun, the god of the Celts,
> having completed his circle or course. When I say in commemoration of Baal,
> I do not mean to say that the people have any traditional memory of Baal, or
> consciousness of celebrating, in this and the preceding articles, any
> religious ceremony to him. These acts arise from immemorial usage, without
> any know- ledge of their origin annexed to them; but the most ancient Irish
> historians, and many learned Celtic scholars, believe and maintain that the
> ceremonies alluded to are the remains of the heathen worship paid by the
> Druids and the Celtic nations to their god Baal. mallan, or malan; W. banal,
> broom. .
>
> Baalan-feail-oin, s. the chaplet made of the plant ------- (?)  and worn on
> the eve of St. John the Baptist. The literal etymology of the word is, ‘An
> a’ chaplet, Baal of Baal, feailley on the feast Eoin of John.
> [Bollan-y-feail-oin, which the inhabitants gather and keep in their houses
> on account of its medicinal properties.—Ed. ]" 		 	   		
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