I'm interested in the Irish word cumal, which has for some mysterious
reason, been translated as 'female slave' and it has been given that meaning
in the accepted lexicon. (I know I'm not the only one finding fault with the
current lexicography.) I can find no evidence for its ever having meant
that. From my research I know variants of this word in many forms as a
widespread, cosmopolitan word, denoting either animals such as horses or
their riders (capall, caballo, cob, cheval, caval-ier etc), or even camels,
or with the -@r ending, goats, (gabhar, gavar, chevr-on), or else denoting a
Fionn MacCumhaill, is our best known 'cavalier' ('cumhaill' = 'caval-'), but
it's my growing conviction that he turns up in the thick of the European
renaissance as Machiavalli. I think Mac Cumhaill = Mac Chiavall, with the
final -i of the Italian form a plural ending, denoting the whole clan, with
the author of 'The Prince" being a prominent member of it, not necessarily
the same individual encountered in Irish tales.
Anyway, it is very unlikely in my opinion that the Irish 'cumall' ever meant
'female slave'. Is there any suggestion that Fionn's mother had been a
slave? If Cumal meant female slave then MacCumhaill would have meant 'son of
a female slave' to many speakers. The 'cumal' is listed as an item in a
graded list of tradable stock in Ireland which, at a time when Ireland's
horses were very numerous and of high value, omits the horse. Allowing for a
broad range of accents, 'u' and 'a' can both be used for the same sound,
like the a in aha or the u in umbrella in both modern Irish and English. If
'cumal' is a variant of 'capall', and means 'horse' then your list consists
of sheets, sheep, pigs, cows etc, and HORSES, not sheep, pigs cows etc and
women. The latter, which is the currently favoured version, denotes
(insultingly imo) a people sadly in need of rebriefing concerning their
humanity, while the former denotes a sane, healthy farming community. (If
you start believing in the healthy alternative, it's amazing how much
clearer all this literature becomes.)
But while my studies of maps, placenames, personal names etc are pretty
extensive, I haven't read all the Irish texts in translation, so I wondered,
can anyone direct me to real evidence of female slavery in old Ireland?
From: CELTIC-L - The Celtic Culture List.
[mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of john welch
Sent: Monday, 1 December 2008 5:43 AM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Re: Balor beimenach
Here is a long skirmish with Ynglinga:
Swedish Sprachgefühl for Anglo-SaxonClark Hall, J.R.: A Concise Anglo-Saxon
Dictionary; 4th Ed, University of Toronto Press 1960. Collinder, Björn:
Swedish translation of Beowulf, Natur och ...
http://www.cichw.net/SSAS.htm - 39k - Cached - Similar pages
There may have been Saxon outposts and mercenary troops among Cymri. The
Roman retention in Essex of "Camulos" war-god, known to Gaulish Belgae,
indicates Brythonic culture there. The lack of other British toponyms may
support the absence of males after invasion, with women being slaves / wives
(as today). cof cof.
In 1485, H VII had 3 flags: St. George, Y Ddraig Goch, and Beaufort arms
with yale supporters. That is 66% Cymric. The yale and dragon are from
Babylon, and Scythian-Celtic ancestor legend.
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