These are very good ideas but present me with a most difficult task.
Tomorrow, I have to do some boring work updating a coin dealer's web
offerings of modern world coins (only slightly more intellectually
stimulating than ditch-digging). I will arrive home exhausted and with
considerable back pain from having to sit at a desk for so long with only
short breaks to walk around to "get the kinks out". I will start to work
on each of the questions the following day.
To start, though, I should mention that later developments of La TÚne art
were certainly copied and used on humble objects that were not the
property of an elite. The later it gets, the more this happens.
Eventually, such objects get made for Roman soldiers who would have no
idea of their origins or any meanings connected to these origins. High
status objects of an expensive nature can be assumed to be belonging to
the elite who both manufactured them and were the customers for them.
These types of objects exhibit a vital development of the art and show
very little duplication.
I would expect to see fairly early examples of simplified designs of
little variation starting with the "peripheral elite" -- people who might,
through family connections wish to associate themselves with levels
somewhat above their real social standing. Eventually, this would spread
With the closer contacts with Rome at the end of the La TÚne we start to
see low status or somewhat Romanized individuals using motifs that connect
them,"ethnically", to the Celts, but which are of Roman style. This is
especially visible in some silver and bronze coins where we might see a
number of Celtic icons like boars, but which exhibit nothing of Celtic
styles and were probably made by Roman and Greek trained artisans. This
happens mostly in heavily Romanized areas of Gaul and Britain, but not so
much in the surrounding areas and not at all in the extreme periphery
which might have little to no contact with Romans. Gold coins are very
much delayed in this process. For example, all of the early gold staters
of Tincomarus are of Belgic La TÚne style and these were used in the
purchase of troops or perhaps as elaborate politically motivated gifts
while some of the silver coins of the same period are taken from Roman
coin or gem designs. Later, his gold coins start to develop a more Roman
style but the earlier subject matter continues, somewhat.
For these questions, I hope to use examples that can be seen on the web
(although this might not always be possible).
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