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CELTIC-L  February 2008

CELTIC-L February 2008

Subject:

Re: Vercingetorix

From:

John Hooker <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

CELTIC-L - The Celtic Culture List.

Date:

Mon, 11 Feb 2008 21:08:17 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (125 lines)

Hi Chris,

Livy reports (5, 34-49) that Brennus said "Woe to the vanquished" after
adding his sword to the weight (when the Roman commander complained about
the amount of the city's ransom) -- but he did not exactly tell the truth
about the Roman defeat:

"When the Gallic Senones besieged Clusium, and envoys were sent by the
Senate to negotiate a peace between them and the Clusians, and the envoys
[instead] fought in the Clusian battle array against the Gauls, the
Senones, insulted by their behavior, marched on Rome with an army ready
for battle, defeated the Romans near the Allia and captured the city,
except for the Capitol, which was the refuge of the young men; the old
men, sitting at the entrances of their houses with their signs of honor
they had obtained, were killed. And when the Gauls climbed to the summit
of the hill opposite the [temple of Jupiter on the] Capitol, their
approach was betrayed by the sound of the geese, and they were thrown down
by the efforts of especially Marcus Manlius. Forced by famine the Romans
descended, to pay a thousand pounds of gold and buy the end of the siege,
but Furius Camillus, who had been made dictator while away, arrived during
the peace negotiations with an army, expelled the Gauls who had been in
the city for six months, and massacred them."
Livy, Periochae 5, 10-12

Polybius was more truthful, but coy:

"The two largest tribes, therefore, the Insubres and Boii, made a league
and sent messengers to the Gauls dwelling among the Alps and near the
Rhone, who are called Gaesatae because they serve for hire, this being the
proper meaning of the word. They urged and incited their kings
Concolitanus and AneroŽstus to make war on Rome, offering them at present
a large sum in gold, and as to the future, pointing out to them the great
prosperity of the Romans, and the vast wealth that would be theirs if they
were victorious. They had no difficulty in persuading them, as, in
addition to all this, they pledged themselves to be loyal allies and
reminded them of the achievement of their own ancestors, who had not only
overcome the Romans in combat, but, after the battle, had assaulted and
taken Rome itself, possessing themselves of all it contained, and, after
remaining masters of the city for seven months, had finally given it up of
their own free will and as an act of grace, and had returned home with
their spoil, unbroken and unscathed".
Polybius, 2.22

While Trogus, reported by Justin, probably gives the most truthful account:

"Now that peace had been obtained and concluded, ambassadors of the
Massiliotes on the way back from Delphi, where they had been sent to give
gifts to Apollo, heard that Rome had been taken and burned by the Gauls.
When this event was reported in the city, the citizens mourned it with a
public funeral and collected public and private funds to make up a sum of
money to pay the Gauls, from whom, as they had learned, peace had been
bought. For this service trade immunities were granted to them by the
Romans, a senatorial seat was allocated to them in the auditorium for the
games, and a treaty was concluded on terms of equality".
Justin, 43.5ff

Massalia (Marseilles) was a Phokaian (Ionia) colony and the Etruscans were
one of their rivals in trade. By helping Rome, they hoped that Rome would
keep the Etruscans in check.

Later, the Celts virtually bankrupted the Etruscans (resulting in a 50%
devaluation of the Etruscan gold currency and making them dependant on
other peoples to supply them with enough troops to fight the Romans). The
Etruscans thought they were buying the allegience of the Celts, but really
they were only paying "protection money".

Cheers,

John

> I'm all for this--- Wasn't it this piece of history/mytheology from whence
> comes the saying, "To the victor go the spoils?"?
>
>   Good luck,
>   Chris
>
> John Hooker <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>   Instead of Veringetorix, how about a statue of Brennus? We could
> purchase
> a small plot of land in Rome -- somewhere very visible, and erect a very
> large statue with the inscription on the base: "Brennus, the Celtic
> conquerer of Rome 387 B.C." (In Italian)
>
> After the public complain enough, we could charge a really enormous amount
> of money to take it down again. Then a new inscription could be placed on
> it concerning Delphi (and in Greek) and then it's off to Greece!
>
> History can repeat itself (after a fashion). ;-)
>
> Cheers,
>
> John
>
>
> John's home page:
> http://www.writer2001.com
> Celtic Improvisations (the on line book):
> http://www.writer2001.com/improvisations.htm
> Celtic Coin Index On Line:
> http://www.writer2001.com/cciwriter2001/index.htm
>
> You can unsubscribe yourself by logging in on the list archives page at
> https://listserv.heanet.ie/cgi-bin/wa?A0=CELTIC-L&X=36DAE1476AF514EF73,
> selecting the 'join or leave Celtic-L' link and going through the
> unsubscription routine there.
>
>
>  Send instant messages to your online friends
> http://uk.messenger.yahoo.com
>
> You can unsubscribe yourself by logging in on the list archives page at
> https://listserv.heanet.ie/cgi-bin/wa?A0=CELTIC-L&X=36DAE1476AF514EF73,
> selecting the 'join or leave Celtic-L' link and going through the
> unsubscription routine there.


John's home page:
http://www.writer2001.com
Celtic Improvisations (the on line book):
http://www.writer2001.com/improvisations.htm
Celtic Coin Index On Line:
http://www.writer2001.com/cciwriter2001/index.htm

You can unsubscribe yourself by logging in on the list archives page at https://listserv.heanet.ie/cgi-bin/wa?A0=CELTIC-L&X=36DAE1476AF514EF73, selecting the 'join or leave Celtic-L' link and going through the unsubscription routine there.

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