Hi John, hi all,
John Hartwell wrote:
> Thanks for the reply. Very interesting.
You`re welcome. I would also recommend you get Steven Mitchell`s "Anatolia.
Land, Men and Gods in Asia Minor. Volume I: The Celts and the Impact of
Roman Rule. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1993 (paperback edition 1995)", who
gives a nice summary of the Galatian history and also mentions the few
archaeological finds that we know from there.
> Also, once they did "settle down", the Celts dominated the local,
> largely urban population, but did not themselves take up residence in
> the cities. They maintaines an essentially pastoral lifestyle, and
> ruled from separate "strongholds" (Rankin calls them "castles" or
> even "hillforts" -- both certainly misleading.)
Well, yes, that`s one of the bigger problems. Actually, Galatian finds are
mostly known from the towns, while none of these "strongholds" or
"hillforts" you mention has yet been safely identified, let only excavated.
In fact, the highest number of archaeological "Galatian" finds come from
three tombs at Bulcium, several miles northwest of Ancyra (one of them even
containing the burial of the younger Deiotaros, most probably the son of the
Deiotaros we know from classical literature), with at least one gold torque,
from another tumulus near Bolu, where two gold torques, bracelets with
animal head terminals, a Bronze horse bit and a belt buckle with a bearded
and moustached ("Celtic") face was excavated. Else, we have a larger number
of "Galatian" finds only from Bogazkoy/Hattusa, with 2 Iron Middle La Tene
fibulas, a Bronze fibula and a Iron sword which might be Galatian. From the
rest of Turkey, only a few more Middle La Tene fibulas and some isolated
finds are known from various sites, none of them being a "true" Galatian
> The combination of a determined adherence to the old ways, yet
> abandonment of the material culture associated with them is puzzling. > If
it weren't for the texts, they probably wouldn't be recognized as
> "Celts" at all. Complicates attempts to define "Celticness" even
So it does, at least that`s what it seems.
All the best,
Raimund Karl <mailto:[log in to unmask]>
Research Fellow for European Archaeology
Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies
National Library of Wales
Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Cymru, UK